Encaenia 2001 - (1) to No 4591



<br /> Oxford University Gazette: Encaenia 2001 (supplement)



Oxford University Gazette

Encaenia 2001

Supplement (1) to Gazette No. 4591

Friday, 22 June 2001


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1 Conferment of Honorary Degrees: Speeches made by the
Public Orator
in introducing the honorands

Degree of Doctor of Civil Law



Degree of Doctor of Letters

Professor Eric Hobsbawm, CH, FBA



Degree of Doctor of Science



Degree of Doctor of Music

Dame Felicity Lott, DBE, FRAM


2 Encaenia


University Acts

CONGREGATION 20 June

1 Conferment of Honorary Degrees

THE PUBLIC ORATOR made the following speeches in
presenting the recipients of Honorary Degrees at the
Encaenia held in the Sheldonian Theatre on Wednesday, 20 June:


His Excellency Kofi Annan

Secretary-General of the United Nations

Paribus se legibus omnes/invictae gentes aeterna in foedera
mittant[1]. sic fere oravit pius
ille Aeneas Maronianus, cum post
tot ingentia bella et amicis et hostibus pacem ac concordiam
stabilire vellet. cui quidem haud ita difficile erat, deae enim
erat filius, cui favebat ipse Juppiter; nos autem homines etiam
hoc a P. Vergilio didicimus, Furorem impium nimis saepe vinculis
abruptis toto orbe saevire, et quidem armis multo magis
exitiosis exornatum quam cum apud poetam saeva super arma
sedebat[2]
. nihil igitur antiquius humano generi est
existimandum, quam ut omnes mortales ita coeant, ita se
foederibus et societate coniungant, ita denique privatis nationum
singularum commodis universam totius terrarum orbis salutem
anteponant, ut nos omnes terroribus qui undique impendent
liberati tandem et exempti vita possimus et incolumi et beata
frui. novis igitur legibus, novis institutis iam opus est, quorum
longe gravissimum exstitit praeclara illa omnium nationum
consociatio, quam UNO ore salutamus. virum nunc produco qui tanto
tamque necessario concilio a secretis est. natus in Ora Aurata,
quae tum provincia erat Imperi nostri, cum in America tum in
Helvetia educatus, mundi est totius civis, diu enim est ex quo
non uni genti inservit sed universis, sive hominibus profugis et
egenis subveniendum erat sive obsides liberandi sive alio modo
paci et concordiae auxiliandum. hic est qui cum Babyloniis de
cibo medicamentisque emendis agebat, hic pacis auctor erat et
Dacis et Ruandae incolis, hic ubique ea iura defendit quibus
omnes homines frui debent. cernitis quam non faciles ad
tractandum hae res fuerint; virum agnoscitis qui negotia non
evitat cum periculosa tum ardua, in quibus si quid minus bene
evenit non, ut fere fit, culpam in ministros confert, ipse
defugere temptat, neque negotium totum obscuritate involvit, sed
prae ceteris apertus est atque sincerus, gregem suum ad meliora
semper hortatur. in legationibus exercitatissimus est,
obstinatissimo cuique persuadet, Afris suis penuria et egestate
varie oppressis opitulatur, consociationis vires et auctoritatem
longissime provexit.

Praesento pauperum sospitatorem magnanimum, iustitiae fautorem
providentem, pacis propugnatorem indefessum, virum
excellentissimum Kofi Annan, ut admittatur honoris causa
ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.

Admission by the Chancellor

Totius orbis terrarum administer eminentissime, qui tuis egregiis
laboribus generi humano tot tamque praeclara beneficia
contulisti, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto
te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.

[1] Virgil, Aeneid xii. 190f.


Return to text

[2] Ibid., 1.294f.


Return to text


Paraphrase


Unconquered, every nation shall unite

And treaties of eternal peace indite.

The poet Virgil depicted his hero, the pious Aeneas, after the
horrors of war, praying in such terms as these for peace and
harmony for friends and foes alike. That was not so difficult for
him; after all, he was the son of a goddess and favoured by
Jupiter himself; but mere mortals can learn from the same great
poet the further lesson that all too often ungodly Madness breaks
its chains and ravages the world - and with weapons more deadly
than when in his poem it "sat crouched upon its cruel
armoury". It follows that there can be nothing which the
human race should think as important as that they should all
unite, that they should strengthen their unity with an
organisation based on treaties, and that they should subordinate
the special interests of individual nations to the common well-
being of all mankind. Only in this way can we be delivered from
the terrors which menace the world from every side and enjoy the
prospect of a life of security and happiness. There has thus been
an urgent need for a new body of international law and for new
international institutions, the most important of which has been
the United Nations. Mr Annan is the Secretary-General of that
body, in which we all place so many hopes. Born in the Gold Coast
when it was still part of the British Empire, educated in the
United States and in Switzerland, he is a true citizen of the
world, who for many years has worked for no single country but
for them all, in such tasks as securing the liberation of
hostages, arranging the purchase of food and medical supplies by
Iraq, or working for peace and reconciliation in Rwanda and in
the former Yugoslavia; and everywhere he has championed human
rights. These have not been easy tasks. Mr Annan is not a man to
shirk problems which are either arduous or dangerous; and he is
conspicuous also for his readiness, if something goes wrong, not
to take refuge in the all too familiar patterns of bureaucratic
obfuscation, of evading responsibility, and of leaving any
criticism to be faced by subordinates. He is outstandingly candid
and sincere, and he has constantly encouraged his organisation
to improve its performance. He is a most persuasive negotiator,
vastly experienced in diplomacy; he has been active in assistance
to his native continent of Africa, in so many ways the victim of
poverty and want; and he has greatly increased the standing and
the power of the United Nations.

I present a generous champion of the poor, a far-sighted partisan
of justice, and a tireless advocate of peace, His Excellency Kofi
Annan, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil
Law.

Admission by the Chancellor

You are a most eminent servant of the whole world; your
outstanding career has conferred great benefits on the human
race. Acting on my own authority and on that of the whole
University, I admit you to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil
Law.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Dr William G. Bowen

President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

Vir procedit in vita tam [praktike] quam [theoretike] egregius,
qui cum librorum complurium auctor sit quibus continetur
exquisitissima rerum oeconomicarum scientia, cathedram enim
obtinuit hic quem praesento admodum iuvenis in Universitate
Princetonensi, postea per amplissimum et honorum et onerum cursum
provectus ad summum quemque magistratum advenit, qui cum
Praepositus tum Praeses plus quam quattuor lustra fuerit. quem
dignitatis locum si quis adeptus est, vix videtur ad altiora
prospicere posse. meministis, credo, quid Diagorae illi Rhodio
clamaverint spectatores, cum ille, qui ipse Olympico certamine
victor fuerat, utrumque filium in iisdem ludis vidisset coronari.
fabulam spero huic acceptiorem fore, qui ipse athleta sit
optimus, libellum autem de re athletica apud academias usurpata
conscriptum nuperrime emiserit, cui titulum De ludo vitali
inscripsit. Morere, inquiebant, Diagora; non enim ascendes in
caelum. sed hic ita excelsum illud reliquit fastigium ut
inveniret quo progredi posset. nam vita ista academica qualem
hodie experimur nos professores, qualem (ni fallor) ipsi
Praesides ac Vice-Cancellarii, ut aliquantulum mellis, ita non
nihil habet fellis, immo anxietatis ac doloris est refertissima.
quanto beatius ergo ille vivit, qui muneribus cotidianis
officiorumque catenis solutus cum de educatione universa
quaestiones primas investigare, tum ea quae sentit efficere
possit. hic autem hominibus fiduciariis Mellonianis praepositus
et otium habet quo res tam graves consideret et facultates quibus
academiis studiis bonis artibus magnopere et prodesse possit et
prosit. quantum per totum orbem terrarum bene faciant opes
Mellonianae, quam prudenter graviter magnanime gubernaculum hic
direxerit, apud intelligentes explicare supersedeo; sed hoc
silentio praeterire non possum, hunc nuper apud nos praelectionem
luculentam habuisse, in qua cum plurima inessent salubria
praecepta tum hoc vel praecipue erat laudandum, his praesertim
temporibus: Sunt quibus, inquit, Universitates hodie videntur
esse venales; equidem ut falsum sit vehementer opto, quae tum
denique pretium habent, cum venales non sint.

Praesento virum discendi docendi res gerendi peritissimum, qui
veram et incorruptam academiarum naturam verbis defendit opibus
tuetur, Gulielmum Bowen, Fundationis Mellonianae Praesidem, ut
admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure
Civili.

Admission by the Chancellor

Praeses humanissime, qui cum ipse Academiam amplissimam
gubernaveris, tum plurimarum academiarum studia splendidum in
modum provexisti, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis
admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris
causa.


Paraphrase

Our next honorand is as outstanding in the life of affairs as in
purely academic pursuits. He is the author of important books on
economics, whose intellectual sophistication has been highly
praised by experts. At a very early age he attained a Chair at
Princeton; he was to stay at that University, proceeding through
a long career of honours and burdens, and holding the office
first Provost and then of President for more than twenty years.
It might seem that a man who has reached that eminence has
nowhere further to go. You may remember the episode of Diagoras
of Rhodes, that great athlete, at Olympia. I hope it will be
acceptable to Dr Bowen, who is himself a considerable athlete,
and who has recently published a book on sport in the academy,
entitled The Game of Life. Himself an Olympic
victor, Diagoras witnessed his two sons achieve the same
distinction. "You had better die now", was the comment
of the bystanders; "you can't attain heaven". Our
guest, by contrast, went on to even greater things. Leaving that
eminent position, he succeeded in finding a yet more important
one. It must be said here that the academic life, as it is
experienced, not only by rank and file University teachers but
even, I fancy, by Presidents and Vice-Chancellors, while it does
contain a certain amount of honey, certainly has its share of
gall. In fact, it tends to be full of anxiety and stress. How
happy, by contrast, is the lot of one who is released from the
chains of routine duties and can can think seriously about
fundamental issues of education, and who can also carry his ideas
into practical effect! Dr Bowen, as President of the Mellon
Foundation, has enjoyed the leisure to reflect on these extremely
important questions and also the resources which have made highly
significant contributions to Universities and to education
generally. I need not dilate upon the enormous amount of good
which has been done all over the world by the Mellon Foundation,
nor on the wisdom, responsibility, and generosity, with which Dr
Bowen has directed its energies. All that is well known to very
many of us. But I cannot deny myself the pleasure of quoting one
passage from the distinguished lecture which he gave here
recently. Among other salutary things, he said: "To some
people, Universities now seem more 'for sale' than they have ever
been. I hope this is not the case, since I am convinced that
their value... derives in large measure from the fact that they
are not for sale". That must strike us as
particularly valuable, especially at this time.

I present a man with a distinguished career as scholar, teacher,
and administrator, a defender both in word and deed of the true
purpose of Universities, William Bowen, President of the Mellon
Foundation, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of
Civil Law.

Admission by the Chancellor

Most cultivated President, you have governed one great
University, and you have generously promoted the studies of many
others. Acting on my own authority and on that of the whole
University, I admit you to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil
Law.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland

Director-General of the World Health Organization

Vetus adagium est, salutem publicam legem esse supremam; quod
usque adeo accipimus hodie ut nihil hominibus in re publica
versatis tam dedita cura observandum esse censeamus quam ut bene
procedat civium valetudo, medicis autem nihil tam usitatum factum
sit quam continuae istae interpellationes, quibus gubernatores
nostri rem sive expedire sive impedire conantur. sed contingit
aliquando ut in una persona et Minervae et Apollinis artes simul
floreant; quod ne quis credere dubitet, haec quam produco testis
est locupletissima, quae et in patria sua et foris inter
Aesculapi ministros educata, mox ad publicum honorum cursum
digressa, adulescens admodum ad summum rei publicae suae
fastigium vocata, cives suos plus quam decem annos rexit, ita
tamen ut valetudinem publicam numquam neglegeret. tandem ad artes
medicas aegrotorumque curationem reversa summo omnium plausu
offici illius Praeses facta est quod litteris primis insignire
solemus: nempe Quaesturam Universae Inservientem Saluti
honoris causa nomino. utrumque munus mulier ante hanc
obiit nemo. nihil omnino a se alienum putat, quae dedita cura in
eo laboraverit ut totius terrarum orbis felicitati consulat, tot
iam periculis undique minantibus; nam quid de frumenti inopia
verba faciam, quid de innumerabili hominum multitudine omnium
rerum egestate laborantum, quid denique de terra, de oceano, de
ipso aere iam magis in dies vitiato ac venenato? sunt qui haec
portenta, quibus in mentem revocantur Maronianae istae


terribiles visu formae, Letumque Labosque,

et Metus et malesuada Fames ac turpis Egestas,[3]

ita parvi pendent, ut aequo animo exspectanda esse, omni
anxietate in tempus nescio quid futurum dilata, prudentioribus
frustra persuadere conentur; haec quae de futuro generis homini
aevo libellum conscripsit saluberrimum meliora et ipsa intellegit
et ceteris praecipit.

Praesento feminam et doctissimam et prudentissimam, patriae suae
olim Praesidem impigerrimam, totius nunc orbis ministram
eminentissimam, Gro Harlem Brundtland, ut admittatur honoris
causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.

Admission by the Chancellor

Civium tuorum gubernatrix sapientissima, civitatis nobiscum
diutissime consociatae Praeses optime merita, universi generis
humani sospitatrix beneficissima, ego auctoritate mea et totius
Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili
honoris causa.

[3] Virgil, Aeneid vi.276.f.


Return to text


Paraphrase

There is an ancient adage to the effect that the health of the
people is the supreme law. So generally, in fact, is that now
taken for granted, that politicians think there is nothing which
needs to be given so much attention as the good health of their
citizens; while doctors, for their part, have grown accustomed
to the constant interruptions by which those who are active in
politics attempt to advance, or to hinder, their activities. Just
occasionally it happens that the arts of politics and of medicine
are brilliantly combined in a single person. Our next honorand
is an example distinguished enough to convert any doubters. She
was educated in medicine both in her own country and abroad, but
she very soon turned to the alternative career of public service.
She became Prime Minister very young, and she was in power for
ten years, never losing sight of questions of public health. She
then returned to the practice of medicine, and it was not long
before she was elected triumphantly as President of that
admirable body, the World Health Organisation, generally known
by its initials as WHO (in Latin, QUIS). She was the first woman
to hold either of these positions. She has very broad sympathies,
and her highest goal has been to promote human happiness all over
the world, menaced as it is by so many perils. One might mention
the shortages of food, the enormous number of people who live in
abject poverty, and the problems posed by the rapidly advancing
pollution of the earth, the oceans, and even the air. Such
horrors call to mind the monstrous forms glimpsed in Virgil's
underworld:


Appalling shapes, of Death and bitter Bane,

Of Fear and Famine, Pestilence and Pain.

There are still some who try to minimise them, urging us to go
tranquilly on, pushing any attempt to deal with them into an
indefinite future; Dr Harlem Brundtland is among the wiser
spirits. She has written a book on the future of mankind, and she
urges us all to join her in thinking seriously about these
problems.

I present a high-powered scientist who is also a far sighted
politician, formerly a dynamic leader of her country, now an
eminent servant of the whole world, Gro Harlem Brundtland, for
admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.

Admission by the Chancellor

You have been most effective in the government of your fellow
citizens, an outstanding Prime Minister of a country which has
long been a close ally of ours. Acting on my own authority and
on that of the whole University, I admit you to the honorary
degree of Doctor of Civil Law.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Professor Eric Hobsbawm, CH, FBA

Emeritus Professor of Economic and Social History, University
of London

Nulla umquam fuit civitas, nulla societas, in qua non cupierunt
homines avorum atque atavorum suorum vitas narrare, res gestas
laudare, bella paces foedera commemorare; nihil enim tam verum
est quam quod scripsit vir facundissimus et idem rerum Romanarum
auctor florentissimus M. Cicero: nescire quid ante quam natus sis
acciderit, id est semper esse puerum[4]
. neque deest in pectore
humano pura ista atque illibata fabulas auscultandi cupiditas;
quis non aliquando Phaeacum similem se praebet? quos Vlixes dum
Circen Cyclopem Laestrygonas suos verbis depingit incantamento
quodam magico opaca per atria detinebat. sed aliud est
narrationem puerorum more deposcere, et eam quidem praesertim
quae regum reginarumque vitas amores beatitudinem exponat; aliud
longe est ita res gestas temporisque praeteriti memoriam tractare
ut maturo mentis adultae acumini appareant causae reconditiores,
utque uno conspectu comprehendantur non singulorum hominum vitae
sed totius societatis mores et vincula illa profundiora quibus
continentur et quodam modo explicantur vices totius saeculi. quod
genus scribendi, cum subtilius tum doctius, tunc praecipue
hominum mentes detinebat cum hic quem produco se ad annales
conscribendos primum contulit. impetus enim erat post tot nefanda
bella tantasque hominum strages intellegendi quid tandem
accidisset, quibus causis genus humanum in tam immanem ruinam
proruisset. minus iam arridebat verbosa rerum a regulis gestarum
narratio, minus etiam hominum aulicorum facetiae fastidia amores;
multo iam ampliores patebant historiae fines, cum annalium
scriptores tum demum se res satis explicare censerent, si homines
tenuiores quoque et humiliores annalibus suis complecterentur,
si quidquid agunt homines, mercaturam itinera artes, si culinam
musicam architecturam, si denique ipsas virum philosophorum
notiones, intertexere et comprehendere valerent. quae omnia hic
tam luculento successu excolit, ut merito primarius inter
historicos hodiernos esse videatur.

Praesento annalium conditorem doctissimum ac facundissimum, qui
nil humanum ab historico alienum esse existimat, Ericum Hobsbawm,
inter Viros praecipue Honoratos Comitem, Academiae Britannicae
Sodalem, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris
in Litteris.

Admission by the Chancellor

Clius administer eminentissime, quem ita amant amici plurimi ut
non semper assentiantur, ita venerantur inimici paucissimi ut
minime oderint, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis
admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Litteris honoris causa.

[4] Cicero, Orator 120.


Return to text


Paraphrase

There has never existed a human society in which people have
not wanted to tell the story of their ancestors' lives, to record
their achievements, and to perpetuate their deeds in war, in
peace, and in dealings with other communities. Nothing contains
more truth than a saying of that very great Roman writer, Cicero:
To be ignorant of what happened before your own birth is to be
a child all your life. The human heart is no stranger to the pure
and unsophisticated desire to be told a story: we have all, at
times, been in the position of Homer's Phaeacians, who while
Odysseus regaled them with tales of Circe, and the Cyclops, and
the Laestrygonian cannibals, were held (says the poet) as if by
enchantment in the shadowy halls. It is one thing, however, to
ask in a childish way for a story, especially one about kings and
queens, their lives and loves and how they lived happily ever
after; it is something very different to treat history and the
memory of the past in such a way that the mature mind of an adult
can trace the hidden patterns of events, and to make visible at
one comprehensive view not merely the life stories of a few
individuals, but the workings of a whole society and the deeper
connections which link, and which go far to explain, the
development of an age as a whole. The demand for this kind of
historical writing, which calls for greater learning and for
profounder thought, was very much in the air when Professor
Hobsbawm first became an historian. After the disasters of the
First War there was a general wish to find out what had happened,
what were the reasons for the descent of humanity into the abyss.
Narratives of the careers of princes and of courtiers, with their
fashions, their intrigues, and their amours, had lost much of
their attraction. The subject matter of historical writing was
greatly enlarged. Historians took it as their task to include in
the narrative the poor and the obscure. True history was to
embrace all human life. The trading, the travelling, the arts;
the cuisine, the architecture; the ideas of philosophers and
intellectuals: all were to be interwoven and taken into account.
Our present honorand has shown himself able to perform all this
with such mastery that he takes his place among the very foremost
historians of the age.

I present an historian as productive as he is learned, one who
thinks nothing human alien to the historian's province, Eric
Hobsbawm, CH, FBA, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor
of Letters.

Admission by the Chancellor

You are a most eminent servant of Clio, Muse of History: loved,
though often without agreement, by your many friends; respected,
without venom, by your few enemies. Acting on my own authority
and on that of the whole University, I admit you to the honorary
degree of Doctor of Letters.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Professor Tim Berners-Lee, OBE, FRS

First holder of the 3-Com Founder's Chair, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology

Virum produco qui opus quod olim muliebre esse dicebatur adeo
provexit ut veteres Penelopen Arachnen ceteras longe superare
videatur. hic enim, hic est, qui totum orbem terrarum tela illa
cosmica implicuit, quae omnes ubique homines novum commerci genus
ita inter se commutare docuit, ut quidquid excogitaverunt tam
rapido cursu transmittatur ut


transitus ipse tamen spectantia lumina fallat[5]
.

vir quem praesento, parentibus mathematicis natus, inter nos
eruditus, cum ad rem physicam incumberet, adulescens admodum
machinis computatricibus delectatus nuperrime tunc excogitatis
ac ne perexiguam quidem adhuc particulam adeptis illarum quas
nunc possident virium, hunc fere ad modum se interrogabat: quid
tum, inquit, si istae machinae universae ita inter se coniungi
possent, ut quidquid in quavis collectum ac cumulatum esset in
omnibus praesto fieret, utque quisquis vellet inquirere universos
illos scientiae thesauros in promptu simul haberet? cui hoc
quoque subiunxit, illas machinas rem multo efficacius, multo
potentius esse confecturas, si ita instrui possent ut res
ordinarent atque componerent quae omni conligatione egere
viderentur. his accessit quod quot erant machinarum genera, tot
fere linguis erat utendum, nondum enim contigerat ut inter se
intellegere ac conloqui possent. hic varios mentis humanae motus
scrutatus eosdem ibi quoque prodesse repperit, ut intellegerent
homines quomodo hoc novo telae genere uti deberent; non sibi tam
bibliothecae imaginem debere proponere, singulos libros
perlegendos, quam navigationem quandam qua


iacet extra sidera cursus

extra anni solisque vias[6]

quaque lector sibi paginas fingeret imaginosas quas sine numero
sine difficultate sine magistro adiret perlegeret collocaret.
singula omitto temporis angustiis conclusus. hoc tamen addo, hunc
amplissimum scientiae incrementum humano generi largitum nummorum
se minime avidum praestitisse, ceteris opes illas quas coacervare
potuisset reliquisse.

Praesento computatorem incomparabilem, telae infinitae inventorem
ingeniosissimum, saeculi novi instauratorem praeclarissimum,
Timotheum Berners-Lee, Excellentissimo Ordini Imperi Britannici
adscriptum, Societatis Regiae Sodalem, Collegi Reginae Socium
honoris causa adlectum, ut admittatur honoris
causa ad gradum Doctoris in Scientia.

Admission by the Chancellor

Scientiae propagator eminentissime, telae luculentissimae textor
sollertissime, totius orbis benefactor generosissime, ego
auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum
Doctoris in Scientia honoris causa.

[5] Ovid, Metamorphoses vi.67.


Return to text

[6] Virgil, Aeneid vi.795f., adapted.


Return to text


Paraphrase

The art of weaving used to be thought especially the domain of
women. Professor Berners-Lee has carried it to a point which
leaves the legendary weavers like Penelope and Arachne far
behind. Here he is, the man who has enveloped the whole world in
his cosmic World Wide Web. It has shown us all how to engage in
a quite new kind of commerce and exchange, and to do it with such
rapidity that, in the words of the poet Ovid, "The speed of
interchange defeats the eye". Born of parents with strong
mathematical interests, he was educated here in Oxford, where he
read Physics. From an early age he was attracted by computers,
at that time a new invention, with very little hint of the power
they would attain later on. They suggested to him an intriguing
train of thought: Suppose all the information stored on computers
everywhere were linked, in such a way that anything stored in any
of them were available on every one, and that an enquirer who
used any one of them would have access to the combined resources
of them all? A further thought suggested itself. In his own
words, "The idea stayed with me that computers could become
much more powerful if they could be programmed to link otherwise
unconnected information." Further, it was necessary at that
time to use as many languages as there were types of machine, as
it had not yet become possible for the machines to understand
each other. Our honorand studied the movements of the human mind
and found that the comparison could be profitable in
understanding how to use his new invention of the web. The image
to keep in one's thoughts was not that of exploring a library and
consulting individual books, but that of navigation through a set
of virtual pages in some abstract space: a space which is, in the
words of the poet Virgil,


Not bounded by the stellar paths,

Nor by the sun's diurnal round.

Those imaginary pages could be accessed, consulted, and
rearranged, without limit of number, without difficulty, and
without the need for a teacher. There is much more that could be
said, if time allowed. I can add only that in conferring on the
world this immense new contribution to our knowledge he has shown
himself the reverse of acquisitive for gain; he has left it to
others to exploit the riches which he might have amassed for
himself.

I present the incomparable master of computing, the brilliant
inventor of the World Wide Web, the inaugurator of a new age,
Timothy Berners-Lee, OBE, FRS, Honorary Fellow of The Queen's
College, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of
Science.

Admission by the Chancellor

You are a most eminent propagator of science, a most ingenious
weaver of the glittering web, and a most selfless benefactor of
the world. Acting on my own authority and on that of the whole
University, I admit you to the honorary degree of Doctor of
Science.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Professor Walter Kohn, FRS

Professor Emeritus and Research Professor of Physics,
University of California at Santa Barbara

Sunt qui ita se studiis ac scientiae conferunt ut uno nomine
complecti possimus quidquid consequuntur; hic, inquies, physicus
est, ille chemicus. alii occurrunt quorum ingenium adeo est
varium, commutabile, multiplex, ut nunc in hoc nunc magis in illo
genere excellant; quid de echino et volpe dixerit poeta nemini
est fere ignotum. hic autem quem produco volpibus certe est
adnumerandus, qui cum in re physica cathedram obtineat tamen in
chemia honores adeptus est summos, quique adeo non umbratilis
tantum est, adeo non a foro alienus studiisque abstrusioribus
involutus, ut se rebus gerendis valde idoneum praebeat: virum
enim praesento qui in Universitate sua hominum physicorum gregem
prudentissime rexerit, persaepe consiliorum publicorum sit
particeps factus, scholam denique illam fundaverit quae studiis
physicis addicta contemplativis - theoriam vocant Graeci - ex
toto orbe homines doctrina insignes convocat qui quaestionibus
difficillimis una incumbant, quae mox hoc gubernante rem tam
felici eventu gessit ut ubique ceteris exemplar factum sit
imitandum. virum agnoscitis acutum, varium, humanum; quid
praecipue scientiae contulerit, quaeritis. hic poetae summi P.
Vergili verbis utar: sit mihi fas audita loqui, et faventibus
amicis "pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas".
plus etiam quam credidit veritatis habet quod cecinit olim
Lucretius:


esse ea quae solido atque aeterno corpore constent,

semina quae rerum primordiaque esse docemus,

unde omnis rerum nunc constet summa creata[7] NAME="7note">.

sed ea ipsa primordia, atomos quae nuncupamus, nihilominus scindi
posse cognovimus, subest enim etiam subtilior quaedam structura,
quam hic cum primus intellexisset, totam rationem immutavit qua
homines docti atomorum compagem et animo fingunt et usu tractant.
quae ab hoc inventa utilissima sunt ac feracissima, aliter enim
vires illas quae ab electro nomen duxerunt tarde tantum per fila
transmitterentur, plurima quae hodie vitam cotidianam exornant
nullo modo efficere possemus.

Praesento hominum physicorum praeclarissimum, chemicorum
ingeniosissimum, qui et ipse res plurimas illuminavit et
ceterorum ingenia prudentissime direxit, Gualterum Kohn,
Societatis Regiae Sodalem, Praemio Nobeliano nobilitatum, ut
admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Scientia.

Admission by the Chancellor

Vir qui ipsius rerum naturae arcana ingenio acutissimo
indagavisti, totius generis humani commodis luculente
inservivisti, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto
te ad gradum Doctoris in Scientia honoris causa.

[7] Lucretius v.500-2.

Return to text


Paraphrase

There are some scientists who apply themselves so closely to one
particular discipline that we can sum them up in a single word:
This one, we say, is a physicist, that one a chemist. Others
appear whose minds are so versatile, and their interests so wide
ranging, that at different times they are outstanding in several
different disciplines. We remember the fable: The fox knows many
things, the hedgehog one big thing. Our next honorand is
certainly to be numbered among the foxes. His Chair is in
Physics, but he has won the very highest honours in Chemistry;
and so far from being an unworldly and cloistered student, he has
proved himself equally effective in the world of action. He has
been an outstanding Head of Department in his own University, he
is a regular member of committees on public affairs, and he
established the Institute for Theoretical Physics, which brings
together from all over the world scientists interested in working
together on fundamental problems. Its success under his direction
has made it a model for similar institutes elsewhere. You already
recognise in Professor Kohn a man of high ability, versatile and
humane. What can I tell you of the details of his own
contribution to pure science? I fall back on the words of Virgil
when describing the next world: May I be permitted to repeat what
I have heard, and, thanks to help from colleagues, reveal
something of matters concealed beneath a veil of obscurity. The
poet Lucretius spoke even more truly than he knew when he spoke
of


Things that exist with true solidity;

We prove them the first building-blocks of all,

And from them all of nature comes to be.

But those first elements themselves, which we call atoms as if
they were indivisible, have turned out to be capable of being
split. Beneath them there lies a yet more minute structure.
Professor Kohn was the first to shed light on it, and his
insights have transformed the way in which physicists conceive
of the structure of the atom and also the ways in which they use
it. These discoveries have proved extremely fertile, leading to
the transmission of energy at high speeds in electronic science,
and so making possible many devices which nowadays form part of
the comfort of all our lives.

I present Walter Kohn, FRS, Nobel Prizeman, an outstanding
physicist who is also a brilliant chemist, a man who has made
important discoveries himself, and who has directed the research
of others with accomplished skill, for admission to the honorary
degree of Doctor of Science.

Admission by the Chancellor

You have investigated the secrets of nature with penetrating
intelligence, and you have advanced the interests of the human
race as a whole. Acting on my own authority and on that of the
whole University, I admit you to the honorary degree of Doctor
of Science.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Sir Gustav Nossal, AC, CBE, FRS

Professor Emeritus of the University of Melbourne

Vir quem produco Australiensis est si quis alius, quem cives sui
adeo observant ut haud ita pridem anno nomen dare iusserint; sed
idem totius mundi est incola et civis, qui tam variis modis orbis
terrarum valetudini inservierit, tot magistratus exercuerit qui
ad humani generis salutem spectant. attendite, quaeso, dum res
paucas saltem expromere conor ex illis quas hic ipse intellexit,
ceteris demonstravit. in corpore humano munitiones insunt quaedam
perparvae, quibus nos contra morborum impetus tamquam moenibus
tuemur, incolumitatem quandam securitatemque defendimus; quae
tamen tam subtiles tamque implicatas habent rationes ut in
contemplando Argum illum centum oculis insignem, in explicando
vero Oedipum ipsum postulare videantur. hic est qui omnium primus
hoc convicit, singulas cellulas e quibus constamus universi unum
tantum genus gignere corpusculorum istorum quibus nomen
excogitavimus si dis placet anticorpora; quo factum est ut totam
formulam possimus hodie complecti secundum quam corpora nostra
morbos repellunt salutem tuentur. neque ita scientiae abstrusae
studuit hic ut non medicorum labores cum tironum tum veteranorum
possit gubernare efficacissime, hominibus aegrotis ferre opem
valentissimam. cum universae generis humani valetudini, qua est
et firmitate et industria, consulat hic qui nuper consilio
praesedit quod idcirco constitutum est, ut ubique morborum
immunitatem commentari experiri vulgare conetur, tum inter cives
suos illorum ducem se atque signiferum praestitit qui scientiarum
fines dilatant, ignorantiam tollunt. non enim satis habet hominum
eruditiorum mentes dirigere, nisi imperitis quoque et indoctis
clarum scientiae lumen possit adferre; nec quisquam est cuius
consilium plus pollet apud illos qui rem publicam administrant.
unum tantum addo, hunc hominum aboriginum saluti plurimum
contulisse, inter diversa hominum genera ita reconciliavisse
concordiam, ut summa sit disputandi disserendique libertas.

Praesento virum multis nominibus laudandum, Gustavum Nossal,
Equitem Auratum, Australiae Comitem, Excellentissimi Ordinis
Imperi Britannici Commendatorem, Societatis Regiae nec non
aliarum academiarum plurimarum Sodalem, ut admittatur honoris
causa ad gradum Doctoris in Scientia.

Admission by the Chancellor

Aesculapi minister eminentissime, corporis humani scrutator
oculatissime,
iustitiae rectique propugnator acerrime, ego auctoritate mea et
totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Scientia
honoris causa.


Paraphrase

Our next honorand is outstandingly Australian; his fellow
citizens have shown their esteem by declaring him, in 2000,
Australian of the Year. He is also a citizen of the world, having
given distinguished service to world health, and having held so
many high positions in organisations which work for the well-
being of the whole human race. I ask for your attention while I
sketch a fraction of the discoveries which Sir Gustav Nossal has
made, and of those which he has popularised and explained to a
wider audience. The human body contains its own microscopic
system of defences, by which it protects itself from the
incursion of diseases. They are so tiny and so complex that they
call for the vision of Argus with the hundred eyes, and the
ingenuity of an Oedipus, solver of riddles. Sir Gustav was the
first to prove that each cell in the body produces only one of
those entities to which we have given the unclassical name of
antibodies. That insight made possible our present understanding
of the body's whole system of immunity, crucial to the
maintenance of health. But his devotion to pure research has not
stood in the way of his being a most effective director of the
activities both of medical students and of established workers
in the field, and also himself a most potent practitioner in the
care of patients. A man of determination and energy, he has made
a great contribution to world health, and he has recently been
President of the International Union of Immunological Societies.
At the same time, in his own country he has been a leading figure
in the publicising and popularising of scientific research, not
content to guide the minds of professionals, but attaching
importance to bringing the layman, too, the illumination of
science; and he has been among the most influential scientists
on the political scene. I add the particular point that he has
done a vast amount for the well being of the aboriginal
population, and that he has been a leading figure in promoting
the cause of reconciliation in his country, and particularly by
ensuring that there has been debate tempered by good will.

I present a man with many claims to distinction, Sir Gustav
Nossal, AC, CBE, Fellow of the Royal Society and of many other
learned academies, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor
of Science.

Admission by the Chancellor

You are a most eminent servant of Aesculapius, god of health; a
most acute observer of the human body; and a most determined
campaigner for justice and for what is right. Acting on my own
authority and that of the whole University, I admit you to the
honorary degree of Doctor of Science.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



Dame Felicity Lott, DBE, FRAM

Soprano

Pervenimus tandem ad felicitatem. apte quidem: quid enim magis
vitae beatae prodest quam suavis illa sonorum ac vocum modulatio,
quam veteres adeo venerabantur ut ipsas stellas errantes dum
moventur arbitrarentur secum trahere musicam? Summus ille caeli
stellifer cursus, inquit Cicero in Somnio[8]
, cuius conversio est
concitatior, acuto et excitato movetur sono, et quidem octo
intervallis quae plenam conficiunt harmoniam. hinc homines doctos
nervis atque cantibus caelestem illam musicam imitatos mortalium
in usum mortale musicae genus invenisse. videtis quam excelsam
originem huic arti invenerint; qua notione delectatus maximus
ille poetarum nostratium in Mercatore suo adulescentem inducit
amatae suae praefantem

nullus in his quotquot caelestibus orbibus orbes

intermixti ardent quin carmina cantet eundo.

haec autem quam produco cum inter histriones tum inter
cantatrices iam diu primarium locum obtinet, quae a patria
nostra, musica olim scilicet carenti,
Musas haudquaquam alienas esse demonstrat;


non obtunsa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni

nec tam aversus equos Tyria Sol iungit ab urbe[9]
.

quin etiam ceterarum nationum carmina, Germanorum ac nescio an
praecipue Francogallorum, tam exquisite repraesentat ut nemo fere
vernaculus, nam et linguam perfecte pronuntiat et ipsam vocem
tanta dulcedine modulatur ut auditorum et mentes et aures
vinculis gratissimis teneat captas atque devinctas. in istius
modi carminibus lis quaedam exstat vetustissima, alii enim
verbis, alii modis magis atque musicae volunt plus inesse
momenti; causam spinosissimam vix inveneritis qui melius
diiudicet quam haec, quae quotiens Comitissae partes sustinuit,
totiens audientibus proclamavit laborem esse ineptum, si quis huc
verba, huc modos, artes gemellas, velit diiungere, cum ambas
inter se interfusas ita misceri consociarique videamus ut novum
quiddam atque inauditum oboriatur. sed hoc cum sit valde
optandum, summum enim est artis fastigium, tamen sine amplissimis
et ingeni et disciplinae dotibus frustra temptatur; quare huic
ex animo gratiam referre debemus.

Praesento aurium delectamentum, animorum refectionem, temporum
nostrorum Sirena canorissimam, Felicitatem Lott, Excellentissimi
Ordinis Imperi Britannici Dominam Commendatricem, Academiae
Regiae Musicae Sodalem, ut admittatur honoris causa ad
gradum Doctoris in Musica.

Admission by the Chancellor

Cantatrix praeclarissima, quae toti orbi terrarum tam exquisitam
voluptatem praeparavisti, in cantilenis bene notis novos sensus,
novas veneres invenisti, ego auctoritate mea et totius
Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Musica honoris
causa.

[8]Cicero, Somnium Scipionis 5.

Return to text

[9] Virgil, Aeneid 1.567f.


Return to text


Paraphrase

We come at last to Felicity; aptly named. What can contribute
more to our happiness than that delightful harmony of sounds and
of song which ancient men revered so highly that they imagined
the stars themselves, as they moved in their courses, bringing
music along with them? "The supreme course of the starry
heaven", says Cicero, "in its rapid rotation, moves
with a clear and thrilling sound, making up the octave which
creates perfect harmony. From this source it is that men skilled
in playing instruments and in singing have devised mortal music
for mortal men, by imitating that heavenly kind". You see
what a sublime origin they thought appropriate for the art. Our
greatest English poet was playing with the same idea, when in
The Merchant of Venice he presented a young lover
discoursing to his beloved:


There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st

But in his motion like an angel sings...

Dame Felicity Lott, whom I now present, has long occupied a
leading position both for her musical and for her dramatic
talents, and we may say that she has showed that "the
country without music", as this was once called, is nowadays
by no means a stranger to the Muses. In the words of Dido, Queen
of Carthage, "Our hearts in Carthage aren't so
Philistine". Dame Felicity goes further, and performs the
music of other countries, German and perhaps especially French,
with a sympathy so complete that few if any natives can rival it.
Her pronunciation of the languages is perfect, and her voice is
so exquisitely modulated that she captivates the ears and minds
of her audiences and holds them in delicious bondage. There is
a long-standing dispute: Which comes first, or which is more
important - the words or the music? The difficult question could
not find a better solver than Dame Felicity, who has so often
sung the role of the Countess in Richard Strauss's
Capriccio, always concluding "Fruitless effort, to
separate the two! Words and Music are fused into one, bound in
a new synthesis". The arts are twins, and in their fusion
they produce a new and especial delight. That is the ideal, and
it is what we all desire; but it is not to be achieved without
the highest level both of talent and of training. So our
gratitude to Dame Felicity should be all the greater.

I present the refreshment of our ears and the delight of our
minds, the melodious Siren of our generation, Dame Felicity Lott,
DBE, FRAM, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of
Music.

Admission by the Chancellor

Most admirable singer, you have provided exquisite pleasure for
the whole world. You have found fresh meaning and fresh beauties
in music which we thought we knew. Acting on my own authority and
on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the honorary
degree of Doctor of Music.

Return to List of Contents of the
supplement



2 Encaenia


THE PUBLIC ORATOR delivered the following introduction to the
Creweian Oration:

Honoratissime Domine Cancellarie – but let us leave the languorous labyrinths
of the learned language for the vividness of the vernacular. The work of the
Orator has in
one respect been made easier by the invention of a publication
both new and newsy, Blueprint, appearing three times a
term and recording events and achievements; and not only in
sport, either. It is also (of course) made more difficult. Those
who are keenly interested in the identity of the new Warden of
Judas, or the opening of the new Centre for Palindromic Studies,
have generally read the news already elsewhere; while the
University's Annual Review goes over much of the same
ground yet again. And the audience of the Creweian Oration, I
fear, contains many whose lot it is to listen also to some
repeated material in the Senior Proctor's Oration and once more
in the Vice-Chancellor's annual speech in October. Fortunately,
Heads of House and University grandees generally are
characterised by an insatiable, a voracious appetite for oratory.
And the doors of the Sheldonian (I add) are locked and
guarded.

The chief function of this Oration has always been the
commemoration of our benefactors. Money matters must loom large.
It is a matter for pride that our income from research grants and
contracts leapt last year by 10 per cent. Oxford in fact claims
to have achieved the greatest income of any British University
in the last year from external research grants and contracts.
More money came in, it is worth remarking, from charities than
from the research councils.

But what do we read, none the less, in the Budget for
2000–1? `The University finds itself facing substantial
financial constraints following the grant settlement announced
by HEFCE, which represents a 2 per cent cut in real terms....
After much discussion, a balanced budget has been agreed for
2000–1' (Gazette, 20 July 2000, p.
1490).
After much discussion: those who are experienced in
interpreting bureaucratic language will guess that behind such
a statement lie sacrifices and struggles (`After discussion, the
report was referred back ...'—and three members of the
Committee were treated for cuts and bruises).

In the words of the Senior Proctor's Oration, which in 2001
maintained the high standard of Orations given on that occasion
in recent years, `This year it has seemed frequently that we are
living in an institution under siege...the requirement for
[Government] control became unstoppable... It is particularly
galling to observe the attempt to use universities as proxy
instruments of the social engineering which the government itself
has so signally failed to deliver... We are least happy at the
situation of Humanities...'. But we in the Humanities are hardly
less concerned to hear of the cuts that are being imposed on some
of our Science departments. All our hearts, surely, must sink,
when we hear talk of cuts, in some of the Life Sciences, of the
order of fifty per cent. Nor were any of us cheered to observe
that in the general election campaign the word `education' seemed
to refer exclusively to schools. The crisis in which higher
education is struggling has not succeeded, it appears, in
attracting the interest of politicians.

It has become a sad but unremarkable fact of life that, at
a time when the nation is said to be flourishing, and huge
financial surpluses are being amassed, our leading Universities
cannot fill the vacancies created when members of staff leave,
and vital academic positions must, as a matter of routine, remain
vacant for years, until gradually the money accumulates to pay
for them. And it becomes clearer that increasingly money will be
forthcoming for special projects, but not for—and indeed at
the cost of—such boring and humdrum purposes as teaching,
research, buying books for our libraries, or repairing our
buildings. No glamour in any of that, for a headline-hungry
government department, or for a publicity-conscious quango. The
importance to the nation in our teaching is obvious; the
importance of some of the new projects, which increasingly divert
money and staff away from our central duties, is much less so.
Yet the one set is being forced by constant interference to
devour the other.

And still—despite all the efforts of moral exhortation
on the one hand, and of satirical denunciation on the
other—still wealthy colleges and healthy departments are
advertising teaching appointments, not for a year, but for nine
stingy months. The Orator would like to think that if he achieves
nothing else in a dozen years of delivering these annual
homilies, he may at least be able, one day, to bring the deep
blush of shame to the saurian and leathery cheeks of these
bodies, as they reflect on the income-less summer months of their
young: the months in which alone they could hope to write the
articles and books which are vital for getting the next academic
job. Next year we may start naming the bodies which do this.
Victims are invited to let the Orator know about them.

There was a great debate this year on salaries and
differentials for academics in the University. The figures at
stake are put soberingly into perspective by the news that
graduates of the Saïd Business School, three years after
graduation, are earning on average £70,000 a year. Well, I
suppose it's nice that someone is.

All that makes us even more aware of our debt to our
benefactors, and of our gratitude to them. We have many generous
friends. Not all of them can be mentioned in this speech, and I
hope that everyone will read and meditate upon the names listed
in the back of the Encaenia programme.

Work has begun on the construction of a grand new Chemistry
Laboratory, in which the three branches of Oxford Chemistry will
be able to work even more closely together. It is to cost
£60,000,000. A third of this sum is to be provided by a
joint venture with the investment bank Beeson Gregory. A grant
of £30,000,000 was received from the Joint Infrastructure
Fund; other grants were made by the E.P. Abraham Research Fund,
Thomas Swan & Co., the Wolfson Foundation, and the Salters
Company. The E.P.Abraham Research Fund has also endowed a Chair
of Cell Biology and made important contributions to a Chair in
Molecular Biology and the upgrading of a Readership in
Microbiology to a Professorship.

An anonymous donation has established a Chair in Psychiatry,
with special focus on the problems associated with autism.
Another anonymous donor has given a substantial benefaction,
intended for the establishment of scholarships. The Andrew
W.Mellon Foundation has made important benefactions to the
Refugee Studies Centre and to the Bodleian Library; we may
perhaps discern here the fine Italian hand of Dr Bowen. The late
Ursula M.Casswell has left more than a million pounds to the
Oxford colleges and the Bodleian. The Library also reports a
timely grant from the Getty Foundation, for the Library elements
of the Michael Aris Fund for Tibetan and Himalayan Studies, and
for an on-line catalogue of illuminated manuscripts—which
promises hours of innocent delight. And the Oxford Centre for
Hebrew and Jewish Studies has given a substantial grant to
construct a new third floor at the Oriental Institute, for
teaching and research in those subjects.

A very substantial grant has been received from the
Leverhulme Trust, to make possible four new posts in contemporary
Chinese studies, including urbanisation, demography, the
environment, and the modernisation of society. This is especially
welcome as a mark of recognition of the strength of Chinese
studies in Oxford, and of the importance which the University and
the Trust attach to understanding the impact of China on the
world. The Indian Government has enabled us to establish a
Professorship of Indian History and Culture. Mr Rivington Winant
has permanently endowed the John G.Winant Visiting Professorship
in American Government. The Rhodes Trust has made very
substantial benefactions to the Saïd Business School and to
the Sackler Library. That Library is nearly completed and soon
to be opened. It will be a fine building and a notable addition
to our facilities for the study of the Ancient World. The Miller
Family Foundation has made a generous grant to St Edmund Hall and
for a fellowship in Management Studies. KPMG has funded for five
years the KPMG Professorship of Taxation Law. The Uehiro
Foundation on Ethics and Education has funded the Uehiro Chair
in Applied Ethics.

The Sub-department of Particle Physics has been awarded a
grant of more than £9,000,000 by the Particle Physics and
Astronomy Research Council. There were two successful bids for
support from the Joint Infrastructure Fund, or JIF:
£3,000,000 each to Dr Iain Campbell, of the Department of
Biochemistry, and to Professor Tony Monaco, Director of the
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics. Ten bids were
successful to the 2000 Joint Research Equipment Initiative for
projects ranging from a new cardiac and brain imaging research
centre to the quest for dark matter in space, left over from the
Big Bang.

The Ashmolean has acquired a splendid portrait by Titian of
a Genoese grandee, bought in memory of Professor Francis Haskell,
with the aid of grants from the Heritage Lottery Fund, the
National Art Collections Fund, the Friends of the Ashmolean, and
other sources. The picture hangs in the Fox-Strangways Gallery,
newly refurbished with a donation from Mr Daniel Katz of the
Daniel Katz Gallery.

The University Museum of Natural History claims that Oxford
now has `the largest display of dinosaurs outside London';
confirming an impression formed, over the years, by so many
undergraduates, and almost a cliché with our fearless
media, with whom it has long been an article of faith that in
Oxford dinosaurs sit in panelled Common Rooms sipping port. And
elsewhere in the Museum other researchers, who regard dinosaurs
as rather vulgarly recent, are creating 3-D `virtual fossils',
images of molluscs and the like which died 425,000,000 years ago,
the distant ancestors of today's mussels, snails, and
octopods.

But Oxford, Janus-faced, looks to the future at least as
much as to the past. Innovative ventures are in the air, and in
cyberspace, too. The University has taken its first steps towards
the establishment of distance learning, on the internet, in
combination with Yale, Princeton, and Stanford. It has also
broken new ground by setting up, with Balliol, the Oxford
Internet Institute, a pioneering multidisciplinary Institution
which will help us to understand the effects of the Internet on
society. That has been made possible by a major donation from the
Shirley Foundation, and a large one from HEFCE.

In the Ashmolean HE the Chinese Ambassador opened the Khoan
and Michael Sullivan Gallery of Chinese Painting, funded by a
generous benefaction from the Christensen Fund and an anonymous
benefactor; while today, this very day, Sir Howard Hodgkin, whom
we honoured at Encaenia last year, comes back to Oxford to open
the Sands Gallery of Early Twentieth Century Art, sponsored by
the invaluable Lottery Fund. It is to house, among other goodies,
ten works by Walter Sickert, a gift from the Christopher Sands
Trust. And a previously unknown lover of the Ashmolean, the late
John Walden Taft, has left it a substantial bequest of property
and shares.

The swimming pool, to be called the Rosenblatt Pool in
recognition of the splendid gift of Mr Lief D.Rosenblatt, former
Rhodes Scholar, should be open by the end of 2001. The OU
Swimming Club, thus heartened, has beaten Cambridge in the second
Varsity swimming race across the Channel (the first having been
a dead heat).

We continue to attract the attentions of the political
world. The University's admissions policy was examined by what
is appropriately known as `a cross parliamentary group'. The TQA,
the RAE: these malign acronyms continued to impose some
tiresomeness on us all, and on a few of us very heavy burdens
indeed. The Research Assessment Exercise has taken an interesting
step beyond its past record of imperiousness. Its members are now
so sure that we real academics tell them lies, that they think
it not enough to require us to report the titles of the books we
claim to have written; not enough even to require their ISBN
numbers. No, we must have an actual copy in the hands of our
faculty representatives, ready to be produced for inspection, and
to be produced instantly (no question, of course, of anyone going
to a library), in case a bureaucrat of the RAE should take the
whim of demanding to be shown it. The little dogs who run with
the big dogs delight to show us their teeth. Such is the
atmosphere of mutual suspicion and contempt which is now to be
taken as normal in a learned profession.

The Faculty of English has decided that Beowulf shall
no longer be compulsory. In many minds the immediate question
arose, Is Oxford English still vibrant? Fortunately an official
statement from the Faculty assures us, in so many words, that it
is: `English at Oxford is diverse and vibrant and
thoroughly relevant to the modern world'. Be still, my beating
heart! Be calm, my racing pulse! How could we have doubted it?

A blue plaque has been affixed to 20 Northmoor Road, home
of J.R.R. Tolkien, charmingly described in Blueprint as
`the former Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon,
perhaps best known as author of The Hobbit and Lord of
the Rings
'. Well, just possibly, I suppose. Another blue
plaque is to be displayed on the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory,
to commemorate the work of Dorothy Hodgkin, Fellow of Somerville,
and her work on the structure of insulin.

The Astrophysicists here are co-operating in the enquiry
into the origins if the Universe. Rather closer to home, and on
a different scale, the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit has
made Wytham Wood `one of the best-known and most intensively
studied woods in the world'. The squirrels there are beginning
to give themselves the airs of artists' models.

As usual, we have this year welcomed a number of very grand
and very interesting visitors. Oriel College received the honour
of a visit from HM the Queen, who opened the college's new
building, the James Mellon Hall. HE Kofi Annan, who we delight
to honour today, gave us a powerful lecture yesterday in this
very Theatre, entitled `Why democracy is an international issue'.
Another visitor in the course of the year was HIH the Crown
Prince of Japan. Ex-President Bill Clinton opened the Vere
Harmsworth Library, part of the Rothermere American Institute,
established with the aid of a number of generous contributions
as an international centre of excellence for the
interdisciplinary and comparative study of the United States and
the colonial territories that preceded it. Some of us caught a
glimpse of Mr Clinton as he dashed in running kit out of the
Randolph Hotel and across St Giles', pursued by his retinue,
their breath coming in short pants. The experience resembled that
of sighting, on a lonely stretch of river, a sudden darting
kingfisher. In some ways, that is; to some extent.

HE Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, came
and gave a lecture on `Globalisation and diversity'. Senator Gary
Hart gave the second Chatham Lecture, on `The future of Anglo-
American relations'. Mr Wole Soyinka gave the Olof Palme Lecture,
on `The scars of memory and the scales of Justice'. Mr David
Blunkett, MP, who was then Secretary of State for Education and
Employment, delivered a lecture on `Learning, citizenship, and
equality in the twenty-first century'. There was an interesting
and well supported series of Oxford Amnesty Lectures.

All Souls enacted its centennial chivvying of the swapping swapping
medieval mallard, provoking the Head of another college to ask,
in the correspondence columns of The Times, whether
that was quite the way to encourage applications from the
underprivileged. It is believed that the college plans to devote
the next hundred years to a fundamental consideration of the
question from all angles, pedagogic, sociological, scholastic,
ornithological, journalistic, political, venatory, historical,
environmental, and gustatory, before harrying that pesky mallard
again in 2101. Meanwhile, the Warden has given a public lecture
on the suggestive topic of `Founder's Kin'.

Balliol has elected a new Master in succession to Dr Colin
Lucas, snatched from us by the University. He is Mr Andrew
Graham, economist, for many years a Fellow of the college, and
not without experience of Whitehall. Dr Lucas has been elected
to the Board of what was the CVCP, now happily christened UUK
(Yu-Yuk). Let us hope that that will be some consolation to him,
as he is, in the words of the hymn, changed from glory into
glory, till in Heaven he takes his place. To put it in a more
prosaic style, he leaves Balliol and has been elected to a
Fellowship of All Souls. Pembroke has elected a new Master in
succession to Dr Robert Stevens; he is Mr Giles Henderson, Senior
Partner in the law firm of Slaughter and May. St Hilda's has
elected a new Principal to succeed Miss Elizabeth Llewellyn-
Smith; she is Dr Judith Milne, currently Chief of Staff of the
VA Boston Healthcare System.

The Honours Lists, it seems, no longer contain many academic
names. As the Independent put it in its front page
headline on January the first, `Showbusiness, media, and sport
dominate New Year Honours'. These (to be sure), these—who
can quarrel with it?—these are your gods, O Israel. Our
congratulations are thus all the heartier to those colleagues
who, even in this Philistine setting, are singled out for well-
deserved recognition. Two of our eminent scientists have received
life peerages: Professor Susan Greenfield, Professor of
Pharmacology and Director of the Royal Institution, and Sir
Robert May, Professor of Zoology and President of the Royal
Society. Professor Christopher White, lately Director of the
Ashmolean Museum and Fellow of Worcester, has received a
knighthood, and Professor Anna Morpurgo Davies, Professor of
Comparative Philology and Fellow of Somerville, has become an
honorary DBE. Mr Eric Hotung, Fellow of St Antony's and member
of the Chancellor's Court of Benefactors, has been made CBE, as
have Mr John Flemming, Warden of Wadham, and Professor Graham
Richards, Professor of Chemistry and Fellow of BNC. Mr Michael
Noble, Fellow of Green College, has received the OBE for his
research into poverty and deprivation. Ms Jeanette Franklin,
Director of the Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre/Orthotics Appeal, has
been awarded an MBE; so has Mr John Ashdown, for many years
Conservation Officer for the city, on whom we conferred an
honorary MA last term. Congratulations to them all. And, of
course, to the six Oxford alumni who won medals at the Sydney
Olympic Games.

Other prizes, honours, and distinctions have been, in the
familiar phrase, as numerous as wrinkles in an elephant's trunk.
I make no pretence of arranging those which follow in order of
importance, or indeed of anything else.

Sir Peter Morris, Nuffield Professor of Surgery, has been
elected President of the Royal College of Surgeons. Dr Martin
West, of All Souls, has been awarded a Balzan Prize for his work
on Classical Antiquity. Canon Arthur Peacocke, of Exeter, has
been awarded the Templeton Prize for having `substantially
advanced the relationship between religion and the natural
sciences'. Professor Malcolm Bowie has been awarded the Truman
Capote Prize for Literary Criticism for his book Proust among
the Stars
. Professor Terry J. Lyons, Wallis Professor of
Mathematics, has been awarded the 2000 Polya Prize of the London
Mathematical Society. Professor Alain Townsend has been awarded
the International Gairdner Award. Professor Stuart Ferguson has
been awarded the Keilin Medal of the Biochemical Society.
Professor John Woodhouse has been awarded the Inge Lehmann Medal
by the American Geophysical Union. Professor Gerry Smith has been
awarded the Alec Nove Prize 2000 for his book on D.S. Mirsky. And
the magazine Isis has been named `Student Magazine of the
Year' in the Guardian Student Media Awards.

The Royal Society has elected seven of our number to
Fellowships: Professor Keith Burnett, Professor Richard Dawkins,
Dr Brian Eyre, Professor John Hunt, Professor Frances Kirwan,
Professor Paul Madden, and Professor Alex Wilkie. The British
Academy elected to Fellowships, some fifty weeks ago now, but too
late (as ever) for last year's Oration, five of us: Professor
John Broome, White's Professor-elect of Moral Philosophy; Dr
Diego Gambetta, Reader in Sociology; Professor James Malcolmson,
Professor of Economics; Professor Oliver O'Donovan, Regius
Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology; and Dr Avner Offer,
Chichele Professor-elect of Economic and Social History. The
Royal Academy of Engineering has elected to Fellowships Dr
Richard Darton, Shell Visiting Fellow of Keble; Professor Terence
Jones, Donald Schultz Professor of Turbo-Machinery; and Professor
Lionel Tarassenko, Professor of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering.

Six of us were awarded British Academy Readerships: Dr
Suzanne Bobzien, Professor Helen Cooper, Dr Diego Gambetta,
Professor Paul Harris, Professor Desmond King, and Dr Adam Swift.
Five young colleagues were awarded Leverhulme Prizes: Dr
Katherine Clarke, Dr Steve Elston, Dr Gideon Henderson, Dr
Matthew Leigh, and Dr Ian Rumfitt.

A team from the Centre for Tropical Medicine has won the
Queen's Anniversary Prize 2000 for Higher and Further Education.
The AHRB has given £472,000 to a team in the Oriental
Institute which is creating a universally available textual
corpus of literature in Sumerian. But some of the University's
research has been devoted to problems hardly (perhaps) less
vibrant, but (if possible) even more relevant to our everyday
lives. Professor Nick Trefethen, of the Computing Laboratory, has
been at work on an interesting problem: how many times does a
pack of cards need to be shuffled in order to achieve randomness?
(six riffle shuffles, it seems). Relevant indeed; and the
Department of Experimental Psychology, not to be outdone, has
proved that in cricket it is best not to keep your eye on the
ball. Nor should it pass uncelebrated that a team of four Oxford
students in Ecuador has identified three new and hitherto unknown
species of frog.

The Alumni Relations Office and the Oxford Society have
merged into the new Oxford University Society. It is sad to hear
that Mr Tim Lewis is retiring from the Secretaryship of the
Oxford Society. We wish the new body, and its new Secretary, all
success.

The Creweian Oration takes all University life as its
province; it aims to give a glimpse of our multitudinous
activities; and it yields to no Oxford organ or oration in its
unresting search for signs of vibrancy. This year the quest has
led me to scan the lists of lectures which have been given here.
Lectures advertised in the Gazette have
included the following: `The development of amphibious warfare';
`What makes theatre theatrical?'; `Le partage de la parole'; `The
search for lovers, friends, and workmates who are not bores' (now
there's a question to which every bosom returns an echo,
and a jolly vibrant one: who denies our relevance now?); `Use of
a cauterising laparoscopic linear stapler in intestinal
anastomoses'; `Monopolies and nuisances in Victorian cities';
`Stone deposition—from pyramids to pelvises'; `Super
rotation in the Earth's thermosphere?' `Fuzzy legality in
regulation'; `The tort of wrongful living: a wrong without a
remedy?' `Buddhism—some mistranslations, misconceptions, and
unexplored territory'; `Co-ordinated swarming in social spiders';
`Sex, sheep, and statutes'; `Some beneficial aspects of
inflammation of the nervous system', rather a comforting title;
`Sprachgeschichtsschreibung' (remarkable for possessing eight
consecutive consonants; how different must be the experience of
playing Scrabble in German).

Some titles are comparatively narrow in scope; thus for
instance `Julio Medem, Lovers of the Arctic Circle, and
the place of the auteur in a global film industry', or `Time and
the fourth dimension of language in the novels of Clarice
Lispector'. Others by contrast impress by their breadth; thus the
title of the inaugural lecture by the Andreas Idreos Professor
of Science and Religion was `Of scientists and their gods'. We
have also had `Literature, science, and human nature', and
`Divine action and chaos theory'. When we seem to have reached
the utmost point in ambitiousness, we find it is still possible
to go further: `Valuing the earth', for instance, or indeed
`Interpreting the outcome'—a subject which perhaps recurs,
more apocalyptically phrased, as `How will it all end?' (the
Tanner Lecture on Human Values). That more plangent tone reminds
us that we must not overlook that perennial cry of despair by
hard-pressed organisers: the eternal `To be announced'.

There have also been some eye-catching titles this year of
D.Phil. theses. They included: `Cadaverous narratives: the
displaced corpse in Victorian fiction', and `The right of
children to be loved'. On a different note, there was `The
Nidanavagga of the Saratthappakasini'; different
again was `Modelling crustal earthquakes as propagating shear
faults in a layered earth'. Suggestively ambitious was `The solar
neighbourhood and centre of the Milky Way'.

I conclude these glimpses of the Oxford which the tourist
does not see with a glance at a few of the University Prizes on
offer to stimulate the aspiring among our student body. There is
the Carlos de Sola Wright Memorial Fund (`priority will be given
to research or study concerning San Salvador'), and the Varley-
Gradwell Travelling Fellowship in Insect Ecology; there is the
Chancellor's English Essay Prize: subject this year, `An
intellectual hatred is the worst', and the Lord Alfred Douglas
Memorial Prize, worth £880, for `the best sonnet or other
poem written in English and in strict rhyming metre'. Intriguing
is the Shelley-Mills Prize, `the purpose of which is to promote
the study of the works of William Shakespeare', as this year the
prescribed essay topic was `Shakespeare and blood'.

Then there is the Sidney Truelove Prize for essays related
to diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract; and the John Betts
Travelling Scholarships, `for visits to particular places to see
organs' (a touch there, possibly, of voyeurism, even of sex
tourism?), and the Dasturzada Dr Jal Pavry Memorial Prize for a
thesis in the area of international peace and understanding. Nor
must we forget, in that favoured discipline, the Bapsybanoo
Marchioness of Winchester Prize for a thesis on international
relations. The Laurence Binyon Prize will be awarded to enable
the prize winner to travel to Asia, the Far East, or another area
outside Europe, to extend knowledge and appreciation of the
visual arts, while the Egerton Coghill Landscape Prize is awarded
for the best landscape painting in oils... [it] must not exceed
four feet square unframed; I see that `the winning entry each
year will be exhibited in the Divinity School during the week of
the Encaenia'. So now is our chance to enjoy it.

Some of us, of course, will not be able to enjoy that
spectacle, nor the Luncheon so splendidly provided each year
after this ceremony by All Souls, nor the lunch (I feel that the
distinction is only right) so generously served by Rhodes House.
Every year we have to remember not only achievements, honours,
prizes, benefactions, new opportunities. We must also feel the
loss of colleagues whom we loved, and who in their lives made
their contribution to the high purposes of this great and ancient
institution. This year I record the deaths of Elizabeth Anscombe,
Fellow of Somerville; Gerald Aylmer, Master of St Peter's; John
Backhouse, Fellow of Linacre; John Christian, Fellow of St Edmund
Hall; William Davies, Fellow of St Cross; Oliver Gurney, Fellow
of Magdalen; Geoffrey Lewis, Fellow of Kellogg; James MacGregor,
Fellow of St Cross; Kathleen Major, Principal of St Hilda's;
Brian Miller, Fellow of Brasenose; Freda Newcombe, Fellow of
Linacre; Alastair Parker, Fellow of Queen's; Mervyn Popham,
Fellow of Linacre; Mary Proudfoot, Fellow of Somerville; Robert
Runcie, Fellow of Brasenose and Visitor of Merton and of All
Souls; Robert Sherlaw Johnson, Fellow of Worcester; Richard
Southern, President of St John's; Anthony Storr, Fellow of Green
College; Alan Tyson, Fellow of All Souls; Peter Whalley, Fellow
of Balliol. Et lux perpetua luceat eis.

Each year the ageing Orator recognises in that list the
names of more and more of the departed with a personal, not
merely an institutional, sense of loss. They die, as we shall all
die, but their work lives on; and what is mortal strives towards
immortality. May we be their worthy successors.

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CREWEIAN ORATION 2001

THE PROFESSOR OF POETRY delivered the following Oration `in
commemoration of the Benefactors of the University according to
the intention of the Right Honourable Nathaniel, Lord Crewe,
Bishop of Durham':

Vice-Chancellor, distinguished guests,

it's been repeatedly impressed

upon me that, of the two chief

stipulations here, my main brief

is mainly brevity itself

while, since we've had details of wealth

given in such wealth of detail,

I'm meant to turn to the large-scale.

That's why I'm holding forth on how

a benefactor may endow

a university with much

more than money, how going dutch

with Princeton (as we've done this year),

may afford all of us a clear

idea of our obligations

to our own, and to all nations,

and how (at the risk of seeming crude),

ample funds lend an amplitude

of vision, freeing us to do

(as it did the third Baron Crewe),

what we know to be the right thing.

This Baron Crewe of whom I sing

in verse (`that which flies on one wing'),

had been a favourite of King

James II, James who'd yet join

at Derry, Aughrim, and the Boyne

with the Prince of Orange and Nassau,

James who'd snatch defeat from the jaws

of victory. It's from that same

Prince of Orange and Nassau the name

Princeton derives, if you recall,

and it's a matter of no small

joy to me that we've honoured here

William Bowen, whom I hold dear

as Princeton's former president.

By the time Bill Bowen had spent

fifteen years at 1, Nassau Hall,

he'd helped to raise the wherewithal

that gives a university

the chance to declare itself free

of at least some of the constraints

that now seem to tarnish and taint

schools on this side of the ocean,

this kingdom of time and motion

run by those time and motion men

who rate academics by when

and where (but not why), they put pen

to paper. I'm glad, yet again,

that this has been the year Oxford

and Princeton are of one accord,

agreeing to collaborate

on twelve research projects—two great,

grounded (two great, groundbreaking), schools

prepared to piggyback, to pool

resources, widening the range

of options for student exchange.

Now that we're gathered to give thanks

for piggybacks from piggybanks,

the trend for alums to scatter

some alms on their Alma Mater

(a tendency much less innate

here than in the United States),

I need to go carefully lest

I'm thought to spurn such grand bequests

as all those establishing chairs

to which our heirs will be the heirs,

that allowing us to enter

the Refugee Studies Centre's

new portal on forced migration

from nation to warring nation,

here a tithe-bond, there a Titian,

when I say that the ambition

to keep Oxford on level terms

may be most powerfully affirmed

by that anonymous bequest

for scholarships. For Oxford's best

interests may not be best served

by governments who have the nerve

to ever-so-coolly insist

on their still being `socialist'

while letting all the social gains

we've cherished go right down the drain,

or governments in their glory

who've forgotten the word `Tory'

is the Gaelic for `highwayman'.

Since daylight robbery's the plan

of governments of every cast,

I look askance and stand aghast

(the very day I turn fifty),

thinking of my parents' thrifty,

threadbare flying, seat-of-the-pants,

relying on those local grants

to educate us, how they'd find

themselves in a much greater bind

fifty years on. So I'm inclined

to think of all these caring, kind,

benefactors for whom we bless

and thank our lucky stars much less

as kind, or caring (though they're both),

but crucial, crucial to the growth

of this great university,

allowing us to be quite free

to pursue a social vision,

including need-blind admissions

and (something in which Princeton's shown

the way), replacing student-loans

with grants for those who can't afford

to pay for tuition and board

but are, in other senses, rich.

It's an initiative with which

I've been repeatedly impressed,

Vice-Chancellor, distinguished guests,

and all of every other rank

on whose behalf I offer thanks

to those who've, this year, seen their way

to hastening that happy day.

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