- Doctor of Divinity
- The Most Revd Timothy Radcliffe
- Doctor of Civil Law
- Professor Giuliano Amato
- Mr William W. Bradley
- Mr Lakhdar Brahimi
- The Rt. Hon. The Lord Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC
- Mr A.W.M. Graham
- Dame Jennifer Jenkins, DBE
- Sir Colin Lucas, Kt., F.R.Hist.S.
- Doctor of Letters
- Professor Jonathan D. Spence, CMG, FBA
- Dr Mario Vargas Llosa
In a Congregation held on Friday, 21 November 2003, to mark the start of the period of office of the new Chancellor of the University, THE CHANCELLOR opened Congregation with the following words:
Causa huius Congregationis est ut Cancellarius nuper creatus in viros et feminam spectatissimos gradum honoris causa conferam, nec non ut alia peragantur quae ad venerabilem hanc Domum spectant. Ite, Bedelli.
THE PUBLIC ORATOR then presented the recipients of Honorary Degrees, as follows:
Doctor of Divinity
The Most Revd Timothy Radcliffe
Formerly Master of the Dominican Order and Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas, Rome
Cum gratum sit Oratori homines in quovis vitae genere praeclaros honorare, tum nescio quo modo praesertim est cordi virum producere non solum in theologia praestantem verum etiam in orationibus eloquentissimum. sed ne quis hoc casu tantum contigisse existimet, hunc et doctrina theologica simul et facundia excellere: cum enim in viris celeberrimo Praedicatorum Ordini adscriptis eloquentiam quandam fere hereditariam exspectemus, tum in Fratre qui et Conventum Oxoniensem Prior Conventualis gubernarit et Angliae Provinciam rexerit et totius denique Ordinis Magister Britannorum omnium primus sit electus, iure summas facundiae copias, vim autem in eloquendo exspectamus cui nullo modo resisti potest. neque mehercle immerito: hic enim contionator est efficacissimus, qui cum auditores ad vitae cursum dirigat emendatiorem, tum sermones publici iuris fecit quibus lectores quoque ad cogitationes serias adque bene vivendum convertat; neque spinosissimum quodque quaestionum genus evitat vir quem audaciae nonnumquam incusaverunt timidiores, qui ipse inter alia res ad sexuum commercia pertinentes haudquaquam negligendas esse proclamat. quin linguae Francogallicae quoque est potentissimus, ne quis forte credat viro Britanno natu, Romae magistratum excelsissimum obeunti, sat materiae, sat laboris praestitisse linguas Italicam Latinam Anglicam. tempus erat quo hic studiis Biblicis praecipue vacabat, sed a criticorum scholis ad vitam activam adque Sanctae Marthae magis partes avocatus eas praesertim orbis terrarum regiones expetivit quae tumultu fame strage vexantur, qui et Ruandam et Mesopotamiam visitaverit curaverit adiuverit. nobiscum praecipuo vinculo coniunctum esse sentimus, qui et natura se praebeat vere Britannum et fratrum Praedicatorum conventui praesederit cum Academia nostra fere aequali, utra enim senior sit historici certant et adhuc sub iudice lis est.
Praesento virum et facundissimum et facetissimum, theologiae professorem eruditissimum qui res humanas haud neglexit, virum usu versatissimum qui religionem sacrorumque doctrinam vitae publicae semper adhibendam esse existimavit, virum reverendissimum Timotheum Radcliffe, Magistrum in Artibus, quondam et Ordinis Praedicatorum Magistrum et Pontificiae Studiorum Universitatis a Sancto Thoma Aquinate Cancellarium Magnum, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Sacra Theologia.
Admission by the Chancellor
Vir reverendissime, cuius egregii labores cum doctrinae et studiis tum universae vitae humanae lucis flumen infuderunt, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Sacra Theologia honoris causa.
An Orator naturally takes pleasure in presenting for an honorary degree persons distinguished in any walk of life, but there is perhaps a particular satisfaction in presenting a man who is not only a theologian of great distinction but also a most eloquent speaker. Nor should it seem to anyone that this combination, of theological profundity with eloquence, is a mere matter of chance. We have come to expect from friars of the Dominican Order—the Order of Preachers—a certain almost hereditary excellence in speaking, and more especially do we anticipate, in a man who has been Prior of Blackfriars in Oxford, Head of the English Province, and Master—the first Englishman to hold the position—of the Order as a whole, great powers of oratory, and an irresistible force of persuasion. Our expectation is perfectly justified. Our honorand is a most effective preacher, whose sermons powerfully direct an audience to live a virtuous life; he has published some of them, and readers too are moved to serious thoughts and the conversion of their lives. He does not avoid tackling the most thorny questions, he has indeed on occasion been criticised by timid spirits for his boldness, and he is on record as saying that questions relating to sexual matters must not be disregarded. He is a master of the French language; let nobody imagine that an Englishman with a very important post in Rome, where he was Head of the Pontifical University (also known as the Angelicum), must have had his hands full with English, Italian, and Latin. At one time he showed a bent for Biblical scholarship, but from the lecture rooms of the learned he has been called to the active life and the lot of Martha; and he has sought out particularly those spots which are ravaged by war, famine, and death. He has been active in Ruanda and also in Iraq. We feel that he is especially linked with us, since his character shows him to be truly English, and he has been Head of a Dominican House which is almost as old as the University itself. Indeed, which is the elder (in the phrase of Horace), `The experts wrangle, and the case is still unsettled'.
I present a man distinguished both for eloquence and for wit, a master theologian who has never disregarded ordinary people, a practical man who believes that religion and the teachings of theology must be constantly applied to the conduct of public life: the Most Reverend Timothy Radcliffe, MA, sometime Master of the Dominican Order and Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity.
Admission by the Chancellor
Most reverend Sir, your outstanding exertions have shed a flood of light both on matters of scholarship and also on human life in general. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Divinity.
Doctor of Civil Law
Professor Giuliano Amato
Formerly Prime Minister of the Italian Republic
Virum produco tam in studiis contemplativis quam in vita publica insignissimum, qui cum cathedras in Academiis compluribus tenuerit, leges Italas tanto ingeni acumine et ipsas explicaverit et cum peregrinis comparatas exposuerit ut cognomen adeptus honorificum doctor subtilis vocaretur, inter eos autem eminuerit qui totius Europae leges conscripserunt, tum magistratuum officiorumque cursu amplissimo perfecto, aerari enim rationes hic rexit manu sollertissima, successu praeclaro, ad summa rei publica gubernacula dirigenda bis electus summa cum laude Primi Ministri munus explevit. neminem esse existimo qui nesciat tempus quoddam fuisse cum res Italae ambitu turpique largitione laborarent, viri autem loco quidem praeclari, facinoribus infames, detecti condemnatique discederent; hic est qui ipse omni contagione intactus in ceteris eandem integritatem flagitavit. tempus erat quo homines astuti singularum civitatum aeraria ac rem pecuniariam consertis viribus oppugnabant, pretia quibus nummos inter nos commutaremus labefactari variarique cogebant, ipsi plurimum lucrabantur; hic intellexit pecuniae publicae rationes in melius esse mutandas, austeritate opus esse ac severitate ut aerario subveniretur, pecuniae aestimatio firmaretur, aeris alieni magnitudo minueretur. cives suos exhortatus ut manu altera cor comprimerent, altera crumenam de collo detraherent, leges tulit saluberrimas quibus cives aere alieno opprimi, rem publicam ipsam rationes conturbare prohibebat. gratiam se popularem aucupari in tali discrimine negabat, immo necessitati parere se rerum; populum suum in praecipiti stare, pedem aliquando esse retrahendum. quid multa? rem publicam civibus nondum emeritis pecuniam largiri vetuit, negotiatores leguleiorum formulis liberavit, vectigalia eis imposuit qui separatim mercantur, genti hominum quae non nisi invitissima pensitat, negotia ex populi potestate exempta privatos gerere iussit. quibus beneficiiis accedit quod hic et aditum paravit quo Itali inter primos essent qui pecunia nova, toti Europae communi, uterentur, et inter eos eminet qui mente dedita Europae leges et instituta meditantur.
Praesento virum et de legum studio et de re oeconomica optime meritum, aerari auxiliatorem potentissimum, aeris alieni solutorem providentissimum, Iulianum Amato, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Hominum oeconomicorum humanissime, academicorum in re publica efficacissime, cuius in patriam tuam inque Europam universam merita sunt praeclarissima, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
Professor Giuliano Amato, whom I now present for admission to an honorary degree, is equally distinguished both in scholarly studies and in public affairs. He has held Chairs at a number of Universities and has shown such great acumen in expounding Italian laws, and also in their comparative study with other legal systems, that he has earned from pupils and colleagues the title of `Doctor Subtilis', the Subtle Doctor. He has played an important role in the Convention on the constitutional treaty for Europe and had an eminent career of public office: as Finance Minister he governed the nation's finances with a skilful hand and with very great success, and he has twice been elected to the supreme position as Prime Minister and held it with outstanding results. It is no secret that at one time Italian political life suffered from financial corruption, and men who had held the highest positions were being unmasked and deposed in disgrace. It was Signor Amato, untouched himself by the breath of scandal, who demanded the same high standards in others. There came a time when cunning men would get together and use their power to attack the currency of different countries, forcing a change of exchange rates and often making themselves enormous profits. Signor Amato realised that the system of public finance needed drastic reform, and that strict austerity was called for in support of the central banks, maintaining exchange rates, and cutting down the burden of debt. He urged his fellow citizens `to put one hand on their hearts, and to get their wallets out with the other'; and he secured the passing of laws which relieved the burden of foreign debt and saved the state itself from bankruptcy. His aim, he insisted, was not to win popularity but to obey the force of necessity: the nation must draw back from the edge of the precipice. Among other necessary measures, he put a stop to the premature disbursement of pensions to those under age; he reduced the burden of regulations on business; he succeeded in exacting tax from the self-employed, a class historically reluctant to pay; and he transferred a number of businesses from state ownership to private control. In addition to all this, he prepared the way for Italy to be one of the first countries to adopt the common European currency; and he is among the most eminent of those who study Europe's laws and institutions.
I present a man of the highest distinction in the disciplines both of economics and of law, the saviour of the treasury, the far-sighted liquidator of indebtedness, Professor Giuliano Amato, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are at once the most humane of economists and the most practically effective of academics; your services to your own country and to Europe are of the highest distinction. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Mr William W. Bradley
Formerly United States Senator from New Jersey
Adstat vir qui semper sibi magis cordi industriam esse ac gnavitatem declaravit quam sedentariam vitam. neque is est qui alterum dicat, alterum sentiat: cum enim in oppido satis parvulo natus, a Princetonensibus educatus, mox Oxoniam adque hanc Academiam transgressus, tandem rei publicae se honorumque cursui contulisset, vix credibile esset quot patriae suae civitates toga candida vestitus percurrisset, nisi ipse se XLVI visitavisse proclamaret. o dura candidatorum ilia sed illud paene praeterii quod in hoc vel maxime admirandum esse videatur: pila luculenter ludebat, iactus autem ab hoc feliciter impulsi tam densi volabant quam Nix: in corbem enim tam accurate e quavis statione quantumvis ab adversariis lacessitus iniciebat, ut nomismate aureo iterum atque iterum decoraretur, cum in Olympicis illis Iaponicis tum in certamine toto orbi terrarum patenti, quo minus miremini hunc ter in illis adparuisse athletis qui Americanorum universorum dexterrime ludunt. virum tam agilem tamque fortem adeo se magistratibus publicis idoneum praestitisse, nam hic viginti paene annos senator apud suos erat, munera gravissima obibat, non sine invidiae aliquantulo miratur Orator, cum hic se in eloquendo alias cum imagine cerea comparet, alias cum Catone magis quam cum Cicerone, facundiae autem ita se contemptorem praebeat ut conceptis verbis eloquentiae facultatem nihil ad rem pertinere declaret, si Senatorem fortem bonumque quaeratis. in curiam adulescens admodum ingressus, nam patrum omnium minimus erat natu, se diligentissimum praestitit, qui mox inter delectos inciperet excellere qui fisci, qui silvarum, qui rei publicae secretorum rationes administrabant. aequitatis se fautorem praebet acerrimum, qui divitum opes pauperum fortunas nimio iam intervallo superare questus hinc cladem imminere monuit rei publicae: idem aboriginum nimis saepe neglectorum oppressorumque patronus exstitit, hominum gente Afra ortorum causam defendit, civium tenuiorum inopum egentium sortem provexit legibus saluberrimis latis. sapientiae Graecae memor et eos tantum ceterorum duces habet qui se ipsos cognoverunt, et cum Socrate vitam penitus examinatam sibi vindicat.
Praesento pilae lusorem insignissimum, curiae columen fortissimum, pauperum sospitatorem praeclarissimum, Gulielmum Bradley, Magistrum in Artibus, olim Senatorem, adhuc athletam, semper imbecillorum adiutorem, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Vir cum in palaestra tum in curia insignissime, in utraque indefesse, qui te iniustitiae adversarium, aequitatis fautorem praestitisti efficacissimum, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
The next of our honorands to stand for presentation has declared that `I have always preferred moving to sitting still'. He unmistakably means what he says. Born in a small town, he was educated first at Princeton, then here in Oxford. When he applied himself to a career in politics, he showed an energy which seems almost incredible; he himself claims to have canvassed in forty-six of the States of the Union. To paraphrase the poet Horace, Tough indeed are the lungs of candidates But we must not pass over a signal element in his career, his brilliance at basket ball. Scoring shots by him flew as thick as snow, when he played for the Knickerbockers. Such was his prowess, throwing from any position and however keenly marked by the other team, that he won many gold medals, including those from the Tokyo Olympic Games and from the World Championship. It is no surprise that he has three times been named All- American. A powerful and nimble athlete, he has also had a distinguished career in politics, serving in the United States Senate for nearly twenty years and holding important offices. An Orator notes with a little chagrin that he has compared his own speaking skills to those of a waxwork, likening himself to Cato rather than to Cicero; his esteem for oratory is indeed so low that he is on record as saying, `Speaking ability has little to do with being a great Senator'. He entered the Senate very young—he was in fact its youngest member—and proved himself highly active, serving on Committees dealing with finance, energy and natural resources, and intelligence. He has been energetic in support of social justice, taking the view that excessive disparity of income between rich and poor was a menace to society. He has worked to improve the lot of Blacks; he has championed the rights, so often disregarded and infringed, of the Native American peoples; and he has been responsible for important legislation which has benefited the poor and the disadvantaged. It is in line with the wisdom of classical Greece that he maintains `For me, leadership is tied to self-knowledge', and, echoing Socrates, that `The examined life has become one of my ideals'.
I present an outstandingly distinguished athlete, a weighty pillar of the Senate, and still a powerful advocate of the weak, Bill Bradley, MA, sometime United States Senator, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
You have shown yourself equally eminent on the field and in the Senate, and in both you have been tireless. You are a most effective opponent of unfairness and champion of justice. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Mr Lakhdar Brahimi
United Nations Special Representative for Afghanistan
Hic quem produco praecipuum aliquid hodie lucrabitur: nam omni gradus academici occasione olim posthabita, e scholis scilicet idcirco egressus ut patriae suae personam apud externos repraesentaret, nunc tandem gradu honoris causa conlato educationi suae finem imponet ac terminum. de hoc possem idem dicere quod de Vlixe heroe Horatius poeta: multorum providus urbes
et mores hominum inspexit,  Praesento virum de totius orbis terrarum pace et concordia optime meritum Lakhdar Brahimi, in persuadendo eloquentissimum, in agendo praesentissimum, in laborando indefessum, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Nationum Consociatarum administer eminentissime, difficillimi cuiusque discriminis resolutor ingeniosissime, pacis fautor et promotor efficacissime, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
Mr Lakhdar Brahimi, whom I now present, will be receiving something today of special significance. He sacrificed the opportunity to take a University degree, in order to become his people's representative abroad; and so the award of a doctorate honoris causawill enable him to regard his education as finally and officially concluded. I can say of him what the poet Horace says of the hero Ulysses: He saw and understood the cities and the ways of many peoples. Mr Brahimi has enacted an Odysseyin his own career, which has involved missions to many countries. I cannot fail to observe that Mr Brahimi was at one time Ambassador to London and spent nearly ten years among us. We all know that there has been times when Algeria has undergone severe crises. In difficult periods for his country Mr Brahimi has played very skilfully a role on the side of reconciliation. He soon passed from the service of a single country to that of multilateral organisations. First, it was the League of Arab States, in whose service he scored one of his greatest successes, negotiating a settlement of the civil war which had plagued Lebanon for sixteen years. Then it was the United Nations, an organisation which has regularly sent him, as a man both devoted to peace and also highly effective in securing it, to those parts of the world where conflict menaced the innocent with famine, destruction, and death. I cannot go through all of his career; but being despatched as UN representative to South Africa he supervised the first genuine elections held in that country, which extended the suffrage to all citizens, black as well as white. In Afghanistan, a country full of weapons and seething with violence, he achieved a partial peace and went on to impose government, agreement, and the rule of law. He is a man who has the benign aim of bringing peace even to those who try to reject it, and he is fertile in expedients for creating it, and tireless in the business of bringing it into existence. For his own part, he prefers always `to leave a light footprint'—but one which, for all that, is not easily effaced. He is also responsible for an epoch-making UN paper, which bears his name, and which discusses the justified use of force, and which discusses how the peace operations of the United Nations can be made more effective.
I present an eminent agent of peace and of good will throughout the world, Mr Lakhdar Brahimi, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are a most distinguished servant of the United Nations, highly resourceful in resolving the most difficult cases of conflict. Eloquent in persuasion, practical in action, and tireless in energy, you have proved yourself most effective in the promotion of peace. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC
Honorary Fellow of St Antony's College
Formerly Secretary of State for Foreign and Commomwealth Affairs
Virum produco qui unico fere et onerum et honorum cursu peracto dignitatem iure est consecutus amplissimam. gente ortus nobilissima se adulescens ad rem militarem adplicavit, cum mox `Discordia taetra belli ferratos postis portasque' refregisset; in cohortibus praetorianis adlectus militavit non sine gloria, cruce enim militari ornatus est. qui igitur paludatus laudem comparavit, is hodie a nobis toga nostra atque honore academico exornetur. devictis tandem hostibus, rus regressus vitam rusticam gustavit; sed tam impigri vir ingeni otium diu non tolerabat, ad vitam publicam ac certamina forensia revocatus inter optimates eminere coepit, vix ex adulescentibus egressus curulem adeptus est magistratum. quo in loco se rei rusticae praestabat scientissimum, e viris delectis persaepe erat qui agricolarum utilitati inservirent, ita tamen ut milites disciplinamque bellicam non negligeret. ad terram Australem legatus summus profectus rem tres annos feliciter gessit; domum reversus maioris notae officia obtinebat, cursum enim secutus est tantae varietatis plenum ut verear ne longum sit si singula enumerem, sed unum reticere non possum, quod instituto praesidebat propugnaculi causa NATO. transeo igitur ad id quod iure dixeris summum, cum hic a rerum externarum secretis patriae nostrae dignitatem peregrinis repraesentaret. hic est qui quaestionem implicatissimam Rhodesianam dedita patientia, sollertia insigni expedivit; hic summo illi consilio praesidebat quo congressi nationum Europearum legati res maximi momenti constituunt; hic Muscoviam profectus provinciam Bactriam ad concordiam ac tranquillitatem redigere conatus est. neque virum produco plane militarem cui Musarum provinciae alienae esse videantur: idoneus enim repertus est qui et praeconum collegium gubernaret praeclarissimum et Museo omnium celeberrimo praesideret.
Praesento omnium horarum hominem, in bello fortissimum, in pace gravissimum, in utroque rei publicae columen praestantissimum, virum honoratissimum Petrum, Baronem de Carrington, Nobilissimi Ordinis Periscelidis Equitem, Praeclari Ordinis Sancti Michaelis et Sancti Georgii Magnae Crucis Equitem, inter Viros Praecipue Honoratos adlectum, Cruce Militari ornatum, Collegi Sancti Antoni Socium honoris causa adscitum, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Vir nobilissime, qui te tam Gratiis quam Marti idoneum praestitisti, cuius in patriam nostram merita et militiae et domi sunt amplissima, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
Our next honorand is a man whose career, almost unparalleled both in honours and in responsibilities, has secured for him the very highest position. A scion of a noble family, he entered in youth on a career in the Army. When, in the words of the Roman poet Ennius, `Hateful Discord burst the iron gates of War', he enrolled in the Grenadier Guards and served with distinction, winning the Military Cross. After this notable service in uniform he now is worthily honoured with the peaceful gown of our honorary Doctorate. When peace was restored, he moved into the country and had a taste of agricultural life; but a man of such energies could not for long remain outside the contentions of politics, and he soon began to play a significant role in the Conservative party. He was promoted to important office while still very young, and he showed special expertise in matters connected with agriculture, often serving on committees relating to that important area. He did not, however, lose touch with his military interests. He served with great success for three years as High Commissioner in Australia. Returning home, he embarked on an extraordinarily varied series of offices. I fear it would take too long to list them all, but I cannot fail to mention that he served as Secretary General of NATO. Perhaps the summit of his career came when he represented this country as Foreign Secretary. With signal patience and hard work he brought a solution to the intractable problem of Rhodesia; he presided over the Council of Ministers of the European Community; he travelled to Moscow to find a peaceful and constitutional settlement for Afghanistan. Nor is he simply a man of action, a stranger to the Muses. He has been Chairman of a most important firm of auctioneers, and he has also served as Chairman of the Trustees of the Victoria and Albert, the greatest of all Museums.
I present a man for all seasons, eminent alike in war and in peace, in both one of the pillars of the nation, the Right Honourable Lord Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
Sprung from a noble family, equally at home with Mars and with the Graces, you have performed noble service for our country both in peace and war. Acting on my own authority and on that of the whole University, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
MR A.W.M. Graham
Master of Balliol College
Quid homini Balliolensi acceptius, quid optatius, quid denique formidulosius accidere potest quam ut de Collegi sui Magistro orationem habeat, et quidem auscultante Universitate universa? sed animum confirmas, Domine Cancellari honoratissime, qui et ipse olim in ista Arcadia vixeris. virum produco in re oeconomica versatissimum, qui cum hic discipulos sub platano sedentes erudierit, tum Platonis praecepto obsecutus, qui philosophos totam vitam philosophari vetat, prodesse iubet ceteris, in Cavernam autem illam regressus, hominibus usui atque exercitationi deditis subvenit, ea quae in scholis docuerat in foro atque in curia administranda curavit. in quo vitae genere tam acceptus erat ut mox illis a secretis esse coepisset qui eo tempore rem publicam gubernabant, quin ipsi Primo Ministro praesto erat qui publicarum opum rationem explicaret. dies me deficiat si coner enumerare quoties fisco laboranti consilium dederit, quot orbis terrarum partes visitarit, quot angustiarum genera expedierit vir et ingenio et usu peritissimus, qui et Asiam et Africam peragravit, hic autem inter nos nunc portus et navalia curabat, nunc copias frumentarias, nunc denique inventa novissima sibi fovenda sumebat quibus homines ingeniosi machinis freti nuntiorum gratulationum facetiarum inter se commercium instituunt. ac nescio an in his praecipue hic quem produco, qua est providentia, nemini secundus intellexerit quantas commutationes, quanta commoda istae machinae generi humano essent conlaturae. quid enim? difficile est explicare, nobis saltem qui in his rebus paullo fortasse indoctiores sumus, quantopere vitam cotidianam conversura sit haec nova quodcumque vis statim rogandi emendi nuntiandi facultas; deo scilicet Mercurio vel ipsa Iride velocius per aethera volant nuntii, ne dicam aliquoties cogitationibus nostris posterioribus intercisis citius advolare quam qua mittentibus omnino gratum esse videatur. sed hic talibus ineptiis intactus institutum condendum curavit quo hoc commerci genus bene ac naviter gubernatum universorum commodo inserviat.
Praesento Balliolensi Balliolensis Balliolensem, virorum oeconomicorum humanissimum, de hominibus academicis optime meritum, nuntiorum acceleratorem, scientiae fontem, Andream Graham, Collegi de Balliolo Magistrum, Magistrum in Artibus, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Doctrinae oeconomicae praeceptor insignissime, intelligentiae artificiosae magister eminentissime, qui cum in academia tum in re publica partes egisti praeclarissimas, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
What can be more delightful for a Balliol man, what more desirable, and yet at the same time what more daunting, than to make a speech about the Master of his College, especially with the whole University as audience? But you, Sir, as Chancellor give me confidence, for you too have lived in that Arcadia. The man I now present is a distinguished economist, who at one time taught the subject in Oxford. In Platonic terms, he sat beneath the plane tree of academic seclusion; but after a time he obeyed Plato's stern injunction that the philosopher should not spend his whole life in theoretical pursuits, but return to the Cave in which real political decisions are taken and take part with men of affairs. So Mr Graham set about applying in practical politics the lessons he had taught in the academy. His success was great, and he soon became an Economic Adviser to the government of the time, in no less an office than that of the Prime Minister. Daylight would fail me, if I were to embark on an exhaustive listing of the problems on which he advised the Treasury, the countries he visited, and the crises in which he showed great resource and great versatility. He travelled through Asia and Africa, and here at home he was active at different times in the supervision of the docks and of the food supply. Latterly he has taken a strong interest in the extraordinary progress of e-technology, which is making possible the instant transmision of news, greetings, and jokes. His foresight is such that he was among the very first to appreciate the potential power of these new techniques and the difference they can make to all our lives. It is not so easy to grasp, at least for those of us who are less than expert in such matters, the magnitude of the changes which will be made for us all by this new power of immediate information, immediate purchase, and immediate news. The messages fly through the ether faster than Mercury or Iris herself. Sometimes, indeed, they outstrip our anxious second thoughts and arrive more quickly than is altogether welcome to the sender; but Mr Graham does not make silly mistakes of that sort, and he has been active in founding an Institute which will see to it that this form of communication is well and efficiently managed for the good of us all.
A Balliol Orator presents to a Balliol Chancellor a Balliol man, the most humane of economists, who is conferring great benefits on all academics, the accelerator of news and fountain of information, Andrew Graham, MA, Master of Balliol, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are a distinguished teacher of economics and an outstanding expert on artificial intelligence, and you have played a role of high distinction both in academic and in public life. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Dame Jennifer Jenkins, DBE
President of the Ancient Monuments Society
Inter tot tamque praeclara huius Universitatis commoda nescio an ullum cum hoc comparandum esse iure videatur, quod pompas nostras diesque festos in aedibus tam splendidis celebrare possimus. quam rem certo scio nemini gratiorem esse quam huic quam produco, quae aedium notabiliorum curationem dedita opera multos iam annos exercet: cum enim decem continuos consilio egregio praesederit cui aedificia vetustiora sunt curae, tum diu centumviris praeerat quorum fiduciae omnem patriae amoenitatem commendamus atque concredimus. quid si hoc addam, hortos quoque regios, regum priscorum refectionem, civium hodiernorum delicias, huic esse haud minus cordi, quae relationem doctissimam conscribendam curaverit qua illorum paradisorum annales adumbravit, securitatem protexit, usum civibus futuris nepotibusque praescripsit? sed ne hanc existimetis Musis elegantioribus tantum vacavisse, illorum quoque consilia magna cum laude gubernavit qui merces venales aestimant, pretia considerant, populo renuntiant quid magno, quid parvo, quid bene possit parari. vitae cursum delineatum cernitis cum bono publico vinculis intimis connexum, et quidem huius erga rem publicam civiumque singulorum et commodum et delectationem merita tam praeclara sunt ut dignissimam iudicemus quam summo quoque honore adficere velimus; sed ab animo impetrare non possum ut hoc sileam, hanc Cancellarii nostri desideratissimi uxorem plus quam quinquaginta annos fuisse, viro se onerum ac laborum participem praestitisse sociamque, nobis Oxoniensibus semper fuisse comem benevolam amicam, quorum plurimos domo hospitalissima mensaque iucundissima invitatos exceperit. gratae igitur munerum publicorum officiorumque recordationi accedit animus amantissimus quo nos homines Academici feminam hodie salutamus quae cum patriae tum Universitati nostrae tot tamque egregia beneficia contulit.
Praesento feminam hominum consiliariorum praestantissimam, de urbis deque patriae nostrae pulchritudine optime meritam, nobiscum vinculo praecipuo devinctam, Jennifer Jenkins, Excellentissimi Ordinis Imperi Britannici Dominam Commendatricem, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Aedificiorum scrutatrix acutissima, sospitatrix beneficentissima, quae te amicissimam et Academiae nostrae et hominibus academicis praebuisti, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
Of all the great advantages enjoyed by this University none, perhaps, is greater than that of staging its ceremonies and its festivities in this splendid building. No one, I am sure, appreciates that more than the honorand whom I now present, who has for many years been so active in the protection of the nation's architectural heritage. She was for ten years Chairman of the Historic Buildings Council, and she was for many years Chairman of the National Trust, which acts for us in the maintenance of all aspects of our aesthetic patrimony. I can add that she has been actively concerned with the royal parks, once the retreat of kings, now the delight of us all as citizens; she presided over the production of an important report, which set out the history of those delicious places and provided for their security and their future. Nor is she to be thought of as wholly devoted to the pursuits of cultured ease: on the contrary, she has also been a highly effective Chairman of the Consumers' Association, which considers articles offered for sale and reports on quality, prices, and value for money. You see the outlines of a life intimately connected with public service, and there can be no question that Dame Jennifer's public career has by itself amply earned her the award of our honorary Doctorate; but it is impossible not to mention that she was for more than fifty years the wife of our late lamented Chancellor, that she shared fully and willingly in all his efforts on our behalf, and that she showed herself hospitable and charming to us Oxonians, entertaining so many of us with noble generosity at home. Our gratitude for her many public duties and services is thus strengthened by personal affection, as we honour a woman who has done so much both for the country and for the University.
I present the provider of so much excellent public counsel, who has made an outstanding contribution to the beauty of our country and our city, and who is linked to us by especial bonds of affection: Dame Jennifer Jenkins, DBE, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are a connoisseur of historic buildings and their most powerful defender; you have proved yourself a true friend of academic people and of our University. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Sir Colin Lucas, Kt., F.R.Hist.S.
Vice-Chancellor of the University
Quid aptius, quid laetius, quid denique omnibus modis acceptius fieri possit quam ut Doctoratus honoris causa in eum conferatur qui ipse toties in alios gradum contulit confert? prodit vir cuius dignitati, quae insignissima est, plerumque ceteri homines academici cedimus, qui autem hodie superiori dat locum, ut brevi tempore scilicet obsequendo posthac et clarior et ornatior excedat. in Collegio Lincolniensi nutritus, inter Mancunienses aliquamdiu versatus, mox volventibus annis Oxoniam regressus ad Balliolenses se recepit, annalium studiosos erudiebat, libros conscribebat et mehercle doctissimos, ita autem ut simul officiis muneribusque publicis vacaret; neque quisquam erat qui plus laborabat in adulescentibus ita alliciendis ut toga candida vestiti in hanc Universitatem aditum quaererent. quem cum valde occupatum videremus, defixum iam credebamus, nostrum perpetuo fore existimabamus; sed ipse strenuus est, istius curriculi angustiis angebatur, subito hinc evasit excessit erupit.
est locus, Hesperiam Grai cognomine dicunt,
terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebae: 
quo digressus hic magistratu apud Chicagenses cum honorifico tum oneroso functus ingentibus et hominum et pecuniae copiis praesidebat. sed cum amissum iam putaremus, ad patrios montes et ad incunabula nostra
successu felici revocarunt Balliolenses, quos Magister creatus breve quoddam tempus regebat: mox autem ad res maiores avocatus, si quidem fingi potest aliquid maius, ipsius Universitatis gubernaculum sex iam annos tam luculento successu tenet ut universorum consensu Vice-Cancellariorum omnium primus imperium exerceat longiuscule prorogatum, rem publicam nostram temporibus iniquissimis vexatam, qua est et sapientia et sollertia, defendat dirigat gubernet.
Praesento Cancellario Vicecancellarium, Collegi de Balliolo quondam Magistrum, Collegi Omnium Animarum Socium, Collegiorum de Balliolo et Lincolniensis Socium honoris causa adscitum, Clius adseclam insignissimum, Academiae ministrum praestantissimum, Colinum Lucas, Equitem Auratum, Magistrum in Artibus, Doctorem in Philosophia, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili.
Admission by the Chancellor
Annalium explicator eruditissime, qui ita Musis et doctrinae inservivisti ut munera publica haud minori successu administraveris, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Iure Civili honoris causa.
What could be more appropriate, more welcome, or in every respect more seemly, than the conferral of an honorary Doctorate on one by whom degrees are regularly conferred on other people? Our next honorand has an academic rank so high that it normally overtops those of the rest of us in Oxford, but today he finds himself out-ranked, so that by temporarily submitting he can emerge all the more highly exalted. An undergraduate at Lincoln College, for sometime teaching at Manchester University, with the passage of time he was recalled to Oxford by Balliol, where he taught Modern History. He wrote books distinguished for their learning, but at the same time he did not hold aloof from holding office, being especially active as Tutor for Admissions in encouraging applications to Oxford from all sorts of potential candidates. We saw him hard at work; we assumed that he was a fixture here; we regarded him as definitely one of us. But he is a man of energy, who found the limitations of our daily round increasingly restrictive, and suddenly, in the phrase of Cicero, he left, he departed, he was gone.
A Western place, by Greeks Hesperia nam'd,
An ancient land, for arms and corn far fam'd:
thither he went, to take a position at the University of Chicago as exacting as it was honorific, involving the management of very large resources both of money and of staff. We gave him up for lost; but Balliol succeeded in luring him back, in the verse of Cicero, `to the hills of his fathers and the cradle of our race'. For all too short a time he was Master of the college, but soon he was called away to greater things, if greater things there can be, and took in hand the steering of the whole University. He has been so successful as Vice-Chancellor for six years now that his term has been unprecedentedly extended, and in this dark period he has continued to give us the benefit of his wisdom and experience in the direction, governance, and defence of the University.
I present to the Chancellor the Vice-Chancellor, sometime Master of Balliol, Fellow of All Souls, Honorary Fellow of Balliol and of Lincoln, Sir Colin Lucas, MA, D.Phil., distinguished historian and outstanding servant of the University, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are a learned researcher in history, but one whose devotion to scholarship has been combined with a career in administration no less distinguished. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Civil Law.
Doctor of Letters
Professor Jonathan D. Spence, CMG, FBA
Sterling Professor of History, Yale University
Ex Africa, inquiebant Romani, semper aliquid novi; illo tempore scilicet hoc extremum erat hominibus novitatem quaerentibus; sed nos hodie res cum recentiores tum magis admirandas e terra etiam longinquiori exspectamus, cuius annales civibus nostris parum cognitos hic quem produco tot melioris notae libris conscriptis luculenter inlustrat. rerum enim Sinensium auctor est florentissimus, qui cum apud Cantabrigienses primum se annalium studio contulerit, tum plus quam triginta iam annos apud Yalenses cathedram obtinet amplissimam, Serum vestifluorum annales sic excussit exploravit lectoribus commendavit ut his temporibus nemo fortasse alius. exilis bibliotheca est in qua non reperias huius opus doctissimum quo describitur regni Sinensis recentioris investigatio, sed cum historico rem habemus Iovi ipsi quodam modo similem, qui diversarum gentium commercia oculis contemplatur aequissimis: tam enim ea inluminat quae Seres de populis Hesperiis senserint quam quo modo nostrates Seras ipsos iudicaverint, quo loco librum venustiorem reticere non possum de arte mnemonica conscriptum, quam ideo excogitavit sacerdos ingeniosissimus ut simul et rerum naturam et litteras illas Sinenses explicaret. quibus libris gravioribus accedunt alii complures qui magis vitam sapiunt quam scholam, et quidem hic saepe hominum humiliorum vices, quas in annalibus reconditioribus delitiscentes effodit expolit format, tam molli stilo depingit ut lectores auribus haud minus intentis mulierculae humilioris mortem quam exercituum progressum imperatorumque dimicationem hauriant. illos non neglexit qui alii alias consilium ac suasionem adtulerunt, exitum nonnumquam improsperum invenerunt; in rebus controversia vehementi involutis aequum se praestat atque prudentem, qui utriusque partium opiniones spes iniurias scrutatus sine ira et studio exponit. quod etiam magis admiramur in iis quae conscripsit de rebus recentissime gestis deque imperatore nuper demortuo cuius libellum rubrum universi olim iactitabamus.
Praesento rerum Sinensium existimatorem praestantissimum, annalium interpretem eloquentissimum, hominum humiliorum depictorem candidissimum, Jonathan Spence, historiae recentioris apud Yalenses Professorem verissime Sterlingium, Praeclari Ordinis Sancti Michaelis et Sancti Georgii Commendatorem, Academiae Britannicae Sodalem, praemiis plurimis cumulatum, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Litteris.
Admission by the Chancellor
Vir eruditissime, cuius egregii labores tantae orbis terrarum parti tantum luminis flumen infundunt, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Litteris honoris causa.
The Romans had a proverbial saying: Out of Africa, always something new. In any quest for novelty, Africa was their furthest point. Nowadays we can look to an area much more remote, when we are in search of something really unknown or surprising; and on that subject Professor Spence, whom I now present, is the author of many excellent books, and has done much to illuminate a history of which most of us know far too little. He is in fact a very great expert on China. He started his studies of the subject at Cambridge; for more than thirty years he has held an important Chair at Yale. He has perhaps done more than any other person of our time in exploring Chinese history and publishing the results of his researches in a form which is attractive to readers. A library which does not contain his learned work The Search for Modern China is a poor one indeed. In writing the history of international contacts he achieves an almost superhuman impartiality, describing equally both Chinese reactions to the West and also the judgment of Western societies on China. I cannot help mentioning a fascinating work on the technique of memory, ingeniously devised by a priest so as to illustrate both the natural world and also the Chinese pictogram system. In addition to his more academic works he has composed a number of books which come closer to ordinary life; Professor Spence is skilled at finding the traces of some humble person's existence lurking unobtrusively in remote source material, unearthing it, and making it into a narrative, with such sensitivity that the reader finds the life story of an the obscure Woman Wang no less important and interesting than the movements of armies and the campaigns of Emperors. He is interested in those who have at different times served as advisers, sometimes to no good outcome; on controversial subjects he is impartial and judicious, setting out the views and passions of different sides without prejudice or intemperance. That is all the more admirable when he deals with recent history and with the late Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, whose Little Red Book was once in all our hands.
I present an outstanding master of Chinese history, a most eloquent interpreter of written sources, and a most sympathetic recorder of the lives of humble people, Jonathan Spence, at Yale truly Sterling Professor of History, Fellow of the British Academy, recipient of numerous prizes, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are a man of true erudition; your very distinguished work has done much to illuminate for us the history of a most important part of the world. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters.
Dr Mario Vargas Llosa
Persaepe homines in re publica insignes, haud ita raro fabularum scriptores egregios toga nostra ac Doctoratu honoravimus; hodie casu felicissimo contingit ut virum producam quem cum cycno nigro comparare iure possimus, qui cum et partes in patria sua libertatis cognomine nuncupatas condiderit, et popularis factionis ducem se praestiterit, summum denique inter suos magistratum plurimis civibus faventibus candidatus appetiverit, tum permagnam librorum praestantissimorum copiam conscripsit, quorum maiorem partem in linguam nostram conversos indocti doctique pervolutamus, quos autem cives cum sui tum aliarum civitatum praemiis amplissimis insigniverunt. genere natus hic quem praesento Peruviano, educatus et domi et in Hispania, acta diurna olim in Gallia edebat, mox ad nos transgressus et Universitati Londiniensi adscitus litteras docebat Latinas illas quae vocantur, ab Americae incolis conscriptas; virum enim vere academicum salutamus, litterarum professorem, qui etiam illa cathedra Londiniensi relicta plurimas alias per totum fere orbem terrarum obivit: nos autem universi summa spe excitati praelectiones exspectamus quas se mox habiturum esse profitetur. si omnes huius libros enumerare conarer, adeo sunt multi, sane haererem; cum Ovidio poeta proclamo, Inopem me copia fecit; sed paucos saltem, cum non possim universos, memorare conabor. quorum sunt qui ita nominantur ut de rebus innocentibus vitaque pacata conscripti esse videantur, Villam Viridem dico ac Fabularum Narratorem, nec non de Catulis narrationem breviusculam quam iuris publici fecit; alii titulos praeferunt qui strages significant resque funestas: nonne enim simul atque in manus sumpsimus Mortem in Montibus Obviam exspectamus necem vim calamitatem? nonne cum rogatum vidimus, Quis Palominum Molerum occiderit? et quidem nescio an hic, cum affectuum teneriorum sit potentissimus, tum praesertim in adulescentium iracundia violentia inimicitiis describendis longissime ceteris antecellat. sed librum gravissimum cui nomen indidit Festum Caprinum silentio praeterire non possum, quo tyranni Dominicani vitam necemque ita depingit ut odium fastidium terrorem sentiat lector.
Praesento mentis humanae existimatorem subtilissimum, delineatorem eloquentissimum, Marium Vargas Llosa, praemiis plurimis cumulatum, ut admittatur honoris causa ad gradum Doctoris in Litteris.
Admission by the Chancellor
Linguae Hispanicae magister potentissime, cuius libri cum cives tuos ceteris praestantissime interpretantur tum affectus humanos universo generi humano subtilissime exponunt, ego auctoritate mea et totius Universitatis admitto te ad gradum Doctoris in Litteris honoris causa.
It is often our fortune to honour with the robes of an honorary doctorate those who have had a distinguished career in public life. Quite frequently we honour distinguished imaginative writers. Today we have a very unusual combination, and Dr Vargas Llosa might be compared to a black swan: a man who in his country is the founder of a political party called by the name of Freedom, he put himself at the head of a popular movement, and he was a candidate, strongly supported by many citizens, for the position of President; he is also the author of an impressive number of outstanding books, most of which have been translated into English and found an appreciative audience both among the learned and among ordinary readers, and which, both in his own country and abroad, have been awarded many important prizes. Born in Peru, he was educated in Spain. For a time he was a journalist in France, and then he came to England and taught Latin American literature at London University. He is indeed a real academic, a Professor of literature, who after leaving London has held Chairs at a number of other Universities. We look forward to the lectures which he promises to deliver soon in Oxford. If I were to try to list all his publications, they are so numerous that I should soon be lost: in the words of the poet Ovid, `Plenty itself has robbed me of resource'. But while it is not possible to mention them all, I cannot resist naming a few. Some have titles which suggest innocence and peace, such as The Green Houseand The Storyteller, or the short story collection entitled The Cubs. Others, though, have titles suggestive of violence and even of horror: when we pick up Death in the Andes we surely expect crime and disaster, as we do with Who Killed Palomino Molero? Dr Vargas Llosa has a fine command of the tender emotions, but perhaps it is above all in the representation of adolescence, its anger, violence, and gang conflicts, that he most clearly excels his contemporaries. One other outstanding book I cannot pass over: The Feast of the Goat, which depicts the dictator Trujillo in life and death, arousing in the reader detestation, scorn, and fear.
I present a most perceptive writer, an expert in understanding the human heart and a master in depicting it, Mario Vargas Llosa, the winner of many prizes for literature, for admission to the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters.
Admission by the Chancellor
You are a most powerful master of the Spanish language; your books not only make your own fellow citizens real to the rest of us, but they also reveal the human emotions with great insight to all readers everywhere. Acting on my own authority and on that of the University as a whole, I admit you to the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters.
 Horace, Epistles i.2.19f.
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 Virgil, Aeneid i.529–30.
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